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The PAROUSIA
ACCORDING TO GREEK SCHOLARS

G. Abbott-Smith
" ... technical term for the visit of a King" -- A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testatment p. 347

Henry Alford
"The coming of the Lord in the end ... shall be a plain unmistakeable fact, understood of all ... The lightning, lighting both ends of heaven at once, seen of all beneath it, can only find its full similitude in His Personal coming, Whom every eye shall see, Rev. i.7" -- New Testament for English Readers Vol. 1, p. 167

W.C. Allen
[on v.27] "The idea apparently is that the presence of the Son of Man will not be local, but everywhere visible" --International Critical Commentary: Matthew p. 257

 

W.F. Arndt; F.W. Gingrich
"coming of a hidden divinity, who makes his presence felt by the revelation of his power" "visit of a person of high rank" "of Christ ... nearly always of his Messianic advent in glory" "gave rise to an opposing use ... the coming of the Antichrist" -- A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature p. 635

F.W. Beare
"The readers are warned to disregard any such rumours of a Messiah who is already in the world, but hidden, for there will be no secrecy about the arrival of the Son of Man. It will be as visible to all as lightning ..." -- The Gospel According to St. Matthew p. 470

John Broadus
"The word suggests ... that Jesus will come and stay with his people ... Messiah's coming will be alike visible to all, and so there will be no occasion for some to tell others where he may be seen." -- An American Commentary on the New
Testament pp. 482,489

W. Adams Brown
" ... "presence" as opposed to absence ... hence the arrival which introduces that presence ... a technical term used in NT to denote the coming of Christ in glory at the end of the age ... it emphasizes the element of permanent presence which the coming of Christ is to introduce ... It has its parallel within the OT in the prophetic anticipation of the Day of the Lord ... that great crisis of human history when J[ehovah] shall be manifested as the Judge and Saviour of Israel, and His Kingdom shall be set up among men ... All the evangelists represent the Parousia as preceded by certain theophanic signs in the heaven" -- Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible Vol. 3 pp. 674-676

A.B. Bruce
"Both expressions -- in the desert, in the secret recesses -- point to non-visibility. The false prophets bid the people put their faith in a Messiah not in evidence, the Great Unseen = "The hour is come, and the man is somewhere, out of view, not far away, take my word for it". ... the coming of the true Messiah ... compared to the lightning, to suggest a contrast between Him and the false Christs as to visibility ..." -- Expositor's Greek Testament Vol. 1 p. 294

E.W. Bullinger
" a coming which includes the idea of a permanent dwelling from that coming onwards" -- A Critical Lexicon and Concordance to the English and Greek New Testament p. 169

D.A. Carson
"The term can refer to "presence," "arrival," or "coming" -- the first stage of "presence" ... closely tied with Jesus' glorious "appearing" ... -- Expositor's Bible Commentary Vol. 8 p. 497

John Peter Lange
[on Matt.24:3,27] "The [parousia] is the [epiphaneia] of 2 Thess. ii.8; 1 Tim.vi.14, etc., in antithesis to the times of the hidden influence and government of Christ ... So will Christ at His appearing manifest Himself by an unmistakeable brightness, irradiating the whole earth. It is not here, then, the mere suddenness that is meant, but rather the omnipresent, unmistakeable, and fearful visibility. The Gospel According to St. Matthew pp.422,426

I.H. Marshall
" ... conceives of the return of Jesus to this world in visible spendor, like a monarch." -- The Epistles of John p165

J.B. Mayor
"visible presence" is regularly used for the Second Coming" -- The Epistle of St. James p. 150

Alfred Plummer
"It intimates that the return of the Messiah in glory will not result, like the first Coming, in a transitory stay, but will inaugurate an abiding presence ... The final event would be sudden and everywhere visible; there would be no sending of tidings that it was on its way ... The Messiah would not lie hidden for a time and become gradually known; His appearance would at once carry conviction as to who He was, and there would be no need to learn this from others. The report that He was in one particular spot was enough to prove that the report was false ..." -- An Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Matthew pp. 329,334

Lawrence O. Richards
"Parousia is sometimes used in a technical sense as the term for an official visit or the arrival of a person of high rank. But even then the word does not normally emphasize the person's arrival but the fact of that person's physical presence with those to whom he or she has come ... When parousia is used to describe the return of Jesus, our thoughts are directed to the fact that he will return in person ..." -- Expository Dictionary of the Bible Words p. 65

A.T. Robertson
"The word parousia occurs in this chapter alone (3,27,37,39) in the Gospels, but often in the Epistles, either of presence as opposed to absence (Phil. 2:12) or the second coming of Christ (2 Thess. 2:1) ...[on v.27] As seen visible in contrast to the
invisibility of the false Messiahs ..." -- Word Pictures in the New Testament Vol. 1 pp. 188,192

Stephen S. Smalley
" ... the primary thought in John's mind is the motivation for Christian commitment provided by the future appearance of Jesus. -- Word Biblical Commentary Vol. 51 p. 129

Joseph H. Thayer
"In N.T. esp. of the advent, i.e. the future visible return from heaven of Jesus, the Messiah, to raise the dead, hold the last judgment, and set up formally and gloriously the Kingdom of God" -- A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament p.490

Marvin R. Vincent
[on Matt.24:27] "Shineth ... The coming of the Lord will be a plain, unmistakable fact, like the lightning which lightens both ends of the heaven at once, and is seen of all. It will not be connected with some particular place, but will manifest
itself and be recognized over the whole world. Compare Apoc.i,7: 'Every eye shall see him.'" Word Studies of the New Testament Vol.1 p.129

W.E. Vine

"denotes both an "arrival" and a consequent "presence with"." -- Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words p. 111

Also see The Second Coming of Christ for more information


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