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 607 WITNESSES AGAINST THE WATCHTOWER

How Solid a Foundation Has The 1914 Chronology?

By DAVID ASPINALL


A billion publications per year ...Papering over the cracks For almost 120 years, boasts The Watchtower, its pages have "faithfully" pointed first forward, then backward, to the date they have not hesitated to herald as "God's date", the most important fixed point in the "Divine Plan of the Ages". Their knowledge of the significance of the year 1914 -- especially in advance -- is viewed by JW's as somehow bestowing prophetic, oracular authority on Watchtower leaders, the "faithful and discreet slave". Note the awestruck tone:

Very noteworthy was the striking accuracy with which that book [Three Worlds, and the Harvest of this World] pointed to the end of the Gentile Times, "the appointed times of the nations" ... Just think of it! Jehovah granted his people that knowledge nearly four decades before those times expired. 1975 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses pp.36-37


Only God by his holy spirit could have revealed this to those early Bible students so far in advance. Watchtower July 1, 1973 p.402


But The Watchtower has consistently covered up the cracked and decrepit condition of its 1914 cornerstone. Not only was the 1914 'prediction' tied to a chronological miscalculation (which has been admitted in recent years, albeit under pressure of critics1), but the expectations regarding the date completely failed 2. With astonishing brazenness, Watchtower writers have attempted to
rewrite this history:


Although this was still decades before the first world war, it is surprising how accurately the events that finally took place were actually foreseen. Jehovah's Witnesses in the Divine Purpose (WTBTS, 1959 p.31)


That Watchtower leaders should attempt to buttress their foundational doctrine is not surprising. They have, after all, rested confidently the full weight of their "good news" on the 1914/last days/this generation scenario. Can we therefore be astonished that the "governing body" has thrown a smokescreen around the most dangerous crack in the 1914 doctrine -- the date of the beginning of the "appointed times", supposedly 607 BCE 3.

Incompetent research -- or dishonesty?


Repeatedly Watchtower publications have attempted to obscure the difficulties of the 1914 calculation with "straw man" arguments; that is, deflecting attention from the issue of the date itself by not so subtle swipes at those who hold other dates for Jerusalem's fall. For example:


Modern secular historians do not generally present 607 B.C.E. as the date for this event, but they are dependent on the writings of men who lived centuries after ... Is This Life All There Is? (WTBTS, 1974 p.158)


We cannot therefore go along with the chronologers of Christendom who date Jerusalem's destruction as occurring in 587 B.C. ... "Babylon the Great Has Fallen!" God's Kingdom Rules! (WTBTS, 1963 p.372)


"Secular historians", "chronologers of Christendom" -- guilt by association, Watchtower leaders hope, will throw the less demanding reader off truth's trail. (Though alarms should go off when "secular historians" and "chronologers of Christendom" are both slapped with the same brush!) But there is an additional deviousness about the Watchtower defense of the 607/1914 calculation: What are JW's or prospective converts supposed to understand by the careful wording "modern secular historians do not GENERALLY present 607 ..."? Would not this guarded admission at least suggest -- to the unsuspecting -- that there are some supporters for the Society's date, even if they are a minority? But in 1981 the Watchtower became extraordinarily bold, in the wake of the research done by JW's like Carl Olof Jonsson:


... based primarily on such secular records, SOME PERSONS FIGURE that Jerusalem was destroyed in 587/6 B.C.E. ... Let Your Kingdom Come (WTBTS, 1981 p.138, emphasis added)


What should JW's and other sincere readers of Watchtower publications understand from this verbal sleight-of-hand -- but that SOME [other] PERSONS DON'T so figure? And do these "some persons" have any credibility at all, or are their opinions automatically tossed on the trash heap with the "secular historians" and "chronologers of Christendom"? And who are the mysterious, unspecified others -- those who, we are allowed to conclude, would NOT hold to the 587/6 date?


In the spirit of impartial inquiry we have attempted to compile a representative selection of these "some persons". At the same time we have attempted to locate ANY other persons who, with Watchtower leaders, challenge the 587/6 date. All available sources have been drawn upon -- whether "secular" (i.e. non-religious historians, archaeologists, chronologers) or religious (Jewish, as well as "Christendom", Roman Catholic and Protestant, both conservative and liberal in their suppositions -- this is important as Witnesses attempt to undermine those who attack the 607 date by impugning their faith in the Bible.) Here follows the result of the last 12 years research. The code across the page explains the sources.


1. Revelation - Its Grand Climax at Hand! (WTBTS, 1988 p.105) The Society has
the miscalculation arranged "providentially", thus implicating God in their error!
[The Concise Oxford Dictionary lists the primary meaning of providential as "of or
by divine foresight or interposition"]
2. See The Time is at Hand (WTBTS, 1889) pp.76-78. All 7 (11?) predictions failed.
3. How the Witnesses arrive at this date can be seen in You Can Live Forever in
Paradise on Earth (WTBTS, 1982) pp.138-141. Even zealous JW's often try to avoid
the subject!

 

 ABBREVIATIONS FOR SOURCES

 AB Anchor Bible  KD  Keil-Delitzsch Old Testament Commentary
 ABC Abingdon Bible Commentary  Lange Lange's Commentary
 BKC Bible Knowledge Commentary  Knox Knox Bible Commentary
 BSC Bible Study Commentary  Lay Layman's B
 Cam Cambridge Bible for Schools  LBC Liberty Bible Commentary
 CCHS Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture  NBC New Bible Commentary
 Cent Century Bible  NBD New Bible Dictionary
 CLB Christian Living Bible  NC New Commentary on Holy Scripture
 Cook Cook's Commentary  NCB New Century Bible
 DSB Daily Study Bible  NIC New International Commentary
 EBC Expositor's Bible Commentary  OTL Old Testament Library
 Ell Ellicott Bible Commentary  OTM Old Testament Message
 Exp Expositor's Bible PCI   Peake's Commentary (1924)
 HDB Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible  PCII  Peake's Commentary (1963)
 IB Interpreter's Bible  PCBE Popular & Critical Bible Encyclopedia
 IBC Interpreter's Bible Commentary  Ref reference work
 ICC International Critical Commentary  Sonc Soncino Books of the Bible
 IDB Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible  SU Student's Union Commentary
 IB 1V Interpreter's Bible One Volume Commentary TB Torch Bible Commentary
 ITC International Theological Commentary WBC  Wycliffe Bible Commentary
 ISBE International Standard Bible Encyclopedia WC Westminster Commentaries
  JBC Jerome Biblical Commentary Word Word Biblical Commentary
  JFB Jamieson, Fausset & Brown ZPEB Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of
the Bible
       

 ABBREVIATIONS FOR CODE COLUMN

  A archaeologist  LP liberal Protestant
 CP conservative Protestant  R Roman Catholic
 H historian  Ref reference work
 J Jewish  

 

 NOTE: Where a question mark appears in the listing, the source gives no actual date for the destruction of Jerusalem, but that date may be deduced from other Neo- Babylonian chronological data on the reference page.


 AUTHORITY  SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE CODE

 DATE
 Abba, Raymond  PRIESTS AND LEVITES (IDB Vol.3 p.882)  LP  586
 Achtemaier, Paul  THE OLD TESTAMENT ROOTS OF OUR FAITH p.103  LP  587
 Achtemeier, Elizabeth  SERAIAH (IDB Vol.4 p.278)  LP  587/586
 Ackroyd, Peter R.  EXILE AND RESTORATION (OTL, p.2)  LP  587
 Adams, J.McKee  BIBLICAL BACKGROUNDS p.266  CP  586
 Adamson, James T.H.  MALACHI (NBC, p.804)  CP  587
 Addis, W.E.  THE PSALMS (PCI p.368)  LP  586
 Adeney, W.F.  LAMENTATIONS (Exp Vol.3 p.546)  CP  587
 Aharoni, Yohanan  THE LAND OF THE BIBLE p.369  J  587
 Albright, William F.  THE OLD TESTAMENT WORLD (IB, vol.1 p.268)  P,A  587
 Alden, Robert L.  HAGGAI (EBC, vol.7 p.573)  CP  586
 Alexander, George M.  THE HANDBOOK OF BIBLICAL PERSONALITIES p.137  LP  587
 Alexander, Ralph H.  EZEKIEL (EBC Vol.6 p.741)  CP  586
 Allen, Leslie C.  PSALMS (IBC p.607)  CP  587
 Allis, Oswald T.  THE UNITY OF ISAIAH p.32  CP  588?
 Andersen, H.G.  ASSYRIA (ZPEB Vol.1 p.383)  CP  587?
 Anderson, Sir Robert  THE COMING PRINCE (13th ed. p.235)  CP  587
 Anderson, Hugh  JOB (INT.1VOL p.239)  LP  586
 Anderson, Bernard  UNDERSTANDING THE OLD TESTAMENT p.355  LP  587
 Anderson, G.W.  THE PSALMS (PCII p.410)  LP  586
 Andrews, H.T.  DANIEL (PCI p.524)  LP  586
 Angus, Joseph  THE BIBLE HAND-BOOK p.526  CP  587
 Archer, Gleason L, Jr  DANIEL (EBC, vol.7 p.4)  CP  587
 Armerding, Carl E.  OBADIAH (EBC, vol.7 p.337)  CP  586
 Armstrong, Karen  JERUSALEM: ONE CITY, THREE FAITHS p.27  LH  586
 Asimov, Isaac  GUIDE TO THE BIBLE p.641  H  586
 Austel, Hermann J.  1,2 KINGS (EBC Vol.4 p.3)  CP  586
 Avi-Yonah, M.  THE HOLY LAND p.11  J  586
 Baker, Walter L.  OBADIAH (BKC vol.1 p.1453)  CP  586
 Baker, D.W.  ZEDEKIAH (NBD p.1278)  CP  586
 Baldwin, Joyce G.  THE HISTORY OF ISRAEL (NBC p.24)  CP  587
 Ball, C.J.  CHRONICLES (Ell, p.211)  CP  588
 Barabas, S.  HAMATH (ZPEB Vol.3 p.22)  CP  587?
 Barber, Cyril J.  NEHEMIAH p.15 (notes 2 prior deportations, 605 and 597)  CP  586
 Barker, Kenneth L.  ZECHARIAH (EBC vol.7 p.612)  CP  586
 Barlow, George  KINGS (PREACHER'S HOMILETIC COMMENTARY) p.648  CP  587
 Barnes, W.Emery  EZEKIEL (NC p.523)  LP  586
 Baron, Salo W.  ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE JEWS p.8  JH  586
 Baron, David  THE VISIONS AND PROPHECIES OF ZECHARIAH p.34  JCP  587
 Barr, James  DANIEL (PCII p.592)  LP  586
 Barrington, Porter L.  JEREMIAH (CLB p.710)  CP 586 
 Barrois, Georges A.  CHRONOLOGY, METROLOGY etc (IB p.142)  LP  587

 

 AUTHORITY  SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE  CODE   DATE
 Barry, Alfred  1 KINGS (Ell, p.6)  CP  586
 Barton, George A.  ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE BIBLE p.199  A  586
 Barwell, B.O.  KING, KINGSHIP (NBD p.655)  CP  587
 Baxter, J. Sidlow  EXPLORE THE BOOK vol.3 p.280  CP  587
 Beard, J.R.  ZEDEKIAH (PCBE Vol.3 p.1745)  CP  588
 Beasley-Murray, G.R.  EZEKIEL (NBC p.668)  CP  586
 Beck, H.F.  GOUGING EYES (IDB Vol.2 p.450)  LP  586
 Bedale, C.L.  THE NATIONS CONTEMPORARY WITH ISRAEL (PCI p.61)  LP  586
 Bennett, W.H.  THE THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT p.51  LP  586
 Bentzen, Aage  INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT Vol.2 p.224  LP  587
 Bertholet, Alfred  A HISTORY OF HEBREW CIVILIZATION p.375  LP  586
 Bevan, Edwyn  THE APOCRYPHA (NC) p.24  LP  586
 Bewer, Julius A.  OBADIAH (ICC p.37)  LP  586
 Bickerman, Elias  FROM EZRA TO THE LAST OF THE MACCABEES p.4  J  586
 Biederwolf, William  THE SECOND COMING BIBLE COMMENTARY p.152  CP  588
 Bimson, John J.  REDATING THE EXODUS AND CONQUEST p.75  H  587
 Binns, L.Elliot  DANIEL (NC p.545)  LP  586
 Bird, T.E.  THE PSALMS (CCHS, p.457)  R  586
 Birdsall, J.N.  ALPHABET (ZPEB Vol.114)  CP  586
 Blackman, E.C.  JUSTIFICATION, JUSTIFY (IDB Vol.2 p.1028)  LP  586
 Blackwood, Andrew  PREACHING FROM PROPHETIC BOOKS p.173  CP  586
 Blaikie, William G.  MANUAL OF BIBLE HISTORY p.342 (3 deportations, 607 &599)  CP  588
 Blank, Sheldon H. PROPHETIC FATIH IN ISAIAH p.49  J  586
 Blenkinsopp, Joseph  DEUTERONOMY (JBC p.119)  R  587
 Blue, J. Ronald  HABAKKUK (BKC vol.1 p.1506)  CP  586
 Bowling, A.  GEDALIAH (ZPEB Vol.2 p.669)  CP  583?
 Bowman, Raymond A.  EZRA (IB Vol. 3 p.574)  LP  586
 Box, G.H.  EZRA (HDB p.253)  LP  586
 Boyer, Paul  WHEN TIME SHALL BE NO MORE p.24  H  586
 Breasted, J.H.  A HISTORY OF EGYPT p.490  H  586
 Bright, John  THE KINGDOM OF GOD p.114  LP  587
 Brockington, L.H.  JOEL (PCII p.616)  LP  586
 Brooks, Richard  GREAT IS YOUR FAITHFULNESS p.8  CP  586
 Brown, Colin  DAY OF THE LORD (ZPEB Vol.2 p.46)  CP  587
 Brown, Charles R.  JEREMIAH p.vi  CP  586
 Browne, L.E.  HISTORY OF ISRAEL: POST-EXILIC (PCII p.126)  LP  586
 Brownlee, William H.  EZEKIEL (IB.1V p.411)  LP  586
 Bruce, F.F.  THE BOOK AND THE PARCHMENTS p.126  CPH  587
Brueggemann, Walter  JEREMIAH 1-25: TO PLUCK UP, TO TEAR DOWN p.1  LP  587
 Bullock, C. Hassell  INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT POETIC BOOKS p.30  CP  586
 Bullough, S.  ABDIAS (CCHS, p.666)  R  586
 Burrows, Millar  JERUSALEM (IDB, vol.2 p.852)  H  587

 AUTHORITY  SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE  CODE   DATE
 Bush, Frederic W.  OLD TESTAMENT SURVEY p.418  CP  586
 Caldecott, W. Shaw  TEMPLE (ISBE p.2934)  CP  586
 Campbell, Donald K.  DANIEL: DECODER OF DREAMS p.8  CP  586
Campbell, Edward F.  THE BIBLE AND THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST: CHRONOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY & CHARTS p.292  LP  587
 Carmody, John  THEOLOGY OF HISTORY IN THE OLD TESTAMENT (BTR, p.173)  R  587
 Carpenter, N. Bob  LAMENTATIONS (CLB p.771)  CP  586
 Carson, John T.  ZEPHANIAH (NBC p.777)  CP  587
 Carstensen, Roger N.  HAGGAI (INT1VOL p.502)  LP  586
 Cashdan, Eli  SONCINO BOOKS: THE TWELVE PROPHETS p.259  J  586
 Castle, E.B.  ANCIENT HISTORY AND TODAY p.165  H  586
 Cawley, F.  JEREMIAH (NBC p.658)  CP  586
 Cazelles, Henri  OLD TESTAMENT BIBLICAL CRITICISM (IDB, vol.5 p.101)  R  587/86
 Challoner, Richard, ed.  THE HOLY BIBLE TRANSLATED FROM THE LATIN VULGATE p.457  R  588
 Charles, R.H.  DANIEL (Cent) p.106  LP  586
 Charlesworth, J.H.  THE OLD TESTAMENT PSEUDEPIGRAPHA (Vol.1 p.616)  LP  587
 Chesnut, J. Stanley  THE OLD TESTAMENT UNDERSTANDING OF GOD p.110  LP  586
 Cheyne, T.K.  JEREMIAH: HIS LIFE AND TIMES p.1  LP  586
 Childs, Brevard S.  INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT AS SCRIPTURE p.346  LP  587
 Chisholm, Robert B.Jr  JOEL (BKC vol.1 p.1409)  CP  586
 Christie, W.M.  SYRIA (ISBE p.2883)  CP  586
 Clements, R.E.  ISAIAH 1-39 p.6  LP  587
 Clinton, H.F.  FASTI HELLENICI vol.1 p.328  H  587
 Coad, F.Roy  HAGGAI (IBC p.959)  CP  587
 Cogan, Mordecai  2 KINGS (AB p.341)  J  586
 Cohen, S.  EDOM, EDOMITES (IDB, vol.2 p.26)  J  586
 Cohu, J.R.  THE BIBLE AND MODERN THOUGHT p.181  LP  586
 Coker, W.B.  HAZOR (ZPEB Vol.3 p.52)  CP  587?
 Coleman, N.D.  THE APOCRYPHA (NC) p.58  LP  587
 Conroy, Charles  1,2 SAMUEL, 1,2 KINGS (OTM) P.263  R  587/6
 Constable, Thomas L.  2 KINGS (BKC vol.1 p.586)  CP  586
 Cook, Stanley A.  AN INTRODUCTION TO THE BIBLE p.48  LP  586
 Cook, F.C.  HABAKKUK (Cook p.654)  CP  588
 Cooke, G.A.  EZEKIEL (ICC, p.xviii)  LP  586
 Cornfeld, Gaalyah  ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE BIBLE p.167  J,A  586
 Cornill, Carl  INTRODUCTION TO THE CANONICAL BOOKS OF THE O.T. p.317  LP  586
 Couturier, Guy P.  JEREMIAH (JBC p.301)  R  587
 Craigie, Peter C.  TWELVE PROPHETS (DSB vol.1 p.208)  CP  587
 Crane, Thomas E.  ISRAEL'S DEUTERONOMIC THEOLOGIANS (BTR p.183)  LR  587
 Crapps, Robert W.  PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT (2nd ed.)p.396  LP  587
 Crichton, James  GEDALIAH (ISBE p.1181)  CP  586
 Culver, Robert D.  DANIEL (WBC p.771)  CP  587
 Cumming, J.Elder  THE BOOK OF ESTHER p.25  CP  586?

 AUTHORITY  SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE  CODE   DATE
 Cundall, A.E.  EZRA AND NEHEMIAH (NBC p.401)  CP  586
 Cunliffe-Jones, H.  JEREMIAH (TB, p.285)  LP  587
 Currey, G.  EZEKIEL (Cook p.113)  CP  588
 Dahlberg, Bruce T.  JESHUA (IDB Vol.2 p.867)  LP  586
 Dake, Finis Jennings  DAKE'S ANNOTATED REFERENCE BIBLE p.805 (OT)  CP  ca 616
 Daniel-Rops, Henri  ISRAEL AND THE ANCIENT WORLD p.275  R  586
 Davey, C.J.  LACHISH (NDB, p.669)  H  587
 Davidson, A.B.  NAHUM, HABAKKUK AND ZEPHANIAH p.46  LP  586
 Davies, T. Witton  THE PSALMS (Cent Vol.2 p.46)  LP  586
 Davis, John J.  A HISTORY OF ISRAEL FROM CONQUEST TO EXILE p.487  CP  586
 Davison, W.T.  PROPHECY, PROPHETS (HDB p.758)  LP  586
 Dawe, H. A.  THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST p.123  H  586
 De Vries, S.J.  CHRONOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT (IDB Vol.1 p.596)  LP  586
 Deane, H.  DANIEL (Ell, Vol.5 p.385)  CP  588
 Delitzsch, Franz  PSALMS (KD Vol.2 p.328)  CP  588
 Dentan, R.C.  KINGS, CHRONICLES (Lay) p.154 (70 years till temple rebuilt)  LP  587
 Dever, William G.  GEZER (IDB, vol.5 p.363)  H  587/6
 Dillard, Raymond B  INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT p.304  CP  587
 Dimont, Max I.  JEWS, GOD & HISTORY p.62  J,H  586
 Dodd, C.H.  THE BIBLE TO-DAY p.33  LP  586
 Douglas, Emmett  EZEKIEL (CLB p.778)  CP  586?
 Drake, W.  ZECHARIAH (Cook pp.717-18)  CP  588
 Drinkard, Joel F.  JEREMIAH 1-25 (Word) p.5  CP  587
 Driver, S.R.  INTRODUCTION TO THE LITERATURE OF THE OLD TESTAMENT p.298  LP  586
 Drumwright, H.L., Jr.  DIASPORA (ZPEB Vol.2 p.119)  CP  586
 Duff, Archibald  LAMENTATIONS (PCI p.496)  LP  586
 Dumbrell, W.J.  COVENANT AND CREATION p.164  CP  587
 Dumm, Demetrius R.  TOBIT, JUDITH, ESTHER (JBC p.625)  R  587
 Duncan, J.G.  THE ACCURACY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT p.107  CPA  586?
 Dunkin, John R.  DANIEL (CLB p.829)  CP  587?
 Durant, Will  OUR ORIENTAL HERITAGE p.114  H  586
 Dyer, Charles H.  JEREMIAH (BKC Vol.1 p.1127)  CP  586
 Dyrness, William  THEMES IN OLD TESTAMENT THEOLOGY p.220  CP  587
 Eadie, John  BIBLE CYCLOPEDIA p.362  CP  588
 Easton, Stewart C.  A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE WESTERN WORLD p.401  H  586
 Eddrup, E.P.  1 ESDRAS (COT)  CP  ca588
 Edersheim, Alfred  PROPHECY AND HISTORY p.322 (sets final deportation in 584)  CP  588*
 Edwards, J.J.  BARUCH (ZPEB Vol.1 p.482)  CP  586
 Eichrodt, Walther  EZEKIEL (OTL p.6)  LP  587
 Eiselen, F.C.  THE PENTATEUCH -- ITS ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT (ABC p.143)  LP  586
 Eissfeldt, Otto  THE OLD TESTAMENT: AN INTRODUCTION p.503  LP  587
 Ellis, Peter F.  1, 2 KINGS (JBC p.179)  R  587

 AUTHORITY  SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE  CODE   DATE
 Ellisen, Stanley A.  KNOWING GOD'S WORD p.236  CP  586
 Ellison, H.L.  1 & 2 CRONICLES (NBC p.393)  CP  587
 Elmslie, W.A.L.  HOW CAME OUR FAITH p.14  LP  586
 English, E. Schuyler, ed.  THE NEW SCHOFIELD REFERENCE BIBLE p.258  CP  586
 Erith, L.E.P.  THE HISTORY OF ISRAEL (NC p.184)  LP  586
 Evans, William  THE BOOK OF BOOKS p.197  CP  587
 Everson, A. Joseph  DAY OF THE LORD (IDB Vol.5 p.209)  LP  587
 Fallows, Samuel, ed.  BARUCH (PCBE Vol.1 p.243)  CP  588?
 Farrar, F.W.  THE BOOK OF DANIEL p.333  LP  588
 Fausset, A.R.  ZECHARIAH (JFB p.717)  CP  588
 Feinberg, Paul D.  TRADITION AND TESTAMENT p.197  CP  586
 Feinberg, Charles Lee  ZECHARIAH (WBC p.899)  JCP  586
 Fenton, Ferrar  THE HOLY BIBLE IN MODERN ENGLISH p.408  CP  588
 Filson, Floyd V.  BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGIST READER (ed. Wright/Freedman) p.192 LP  587
 Findlay, G.G.  BARUCH (HDB p.85)  LP  586
 Finegan, Jack  LIGHT FROM THE ANCIENT PAST Vol.1 p.192  LP  586
 Fink, Paul R.  OBADIAH (LBC p.1716)  CP  586
 Fisch, S.  EZEKIEL (Sonc, p.225)  J  586
 Fitzgerald, Aloysius  BARUCH (JBC p.614)  R  587
 Flanders, Henry J., Jr  PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT (2nd ed.)p.396  LP  587
 Ford, Desmond  DANIEL p.35  CP  587
 Forestell, J.Terence  PROVERBS (JBC p.496)  R  587
 Fosdick, H.E.  A PILGRIMAGE TO PALESTINE p.118  LP  586
 Francisco, Clyde T.  STUDIES IN JEREMIAH p.1  CP  587
 Freedman, H.  SONCINO BOOKS OF THE BIBLE - JEREMIAH p.ix  J  586
 Freedman, David N  CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT (IDB, vol.5 p.131)  J  587
 Freehof, Solomon B.  PREFACE TO SCRIPTURE: ... JEWISH TRADITION p.122  J  586
 Freeman, Hobart E.  INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT PROPHETS p.241  CP  586
 Fritsch, Charles T.  1 CHRONICLES (IB.1V p.208)  LP  586
 Frost, Stanley Brice  OLD TESTAMENT APOCALYPTIC p.87  LP  587
 Fuller, J.M.  DANIEL (Cook p.238)  CP  588
 Fuller, Reginald H.  THE BOOK OF THE ACTS OF GOD p.168  CP  587
 Gaebelein, Arno C.  THE PROPHET DANIEL p.11  CP  587
 Garner, G.G.  FORTIFICATION & SIEGECRAFT (NBD, p.392)  H  586
 Gasque, W.Ward  OBADIAH (IBC p.914)  CP  587/6
 Gates, John T.  1 KINGS (WBC p.308)  CP  586
 Geddie, William, ed.  CHAMBERS BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY (3rd ed. 1935)p.689  Ref  586
 Geikie, Cunningham  HOURS WITH THE BIBLE: FROM MANASSEH TO ZEDEKIAH p.394  CP  588
 Geisler, Norman L.  A GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BIBLE p.240  CP  586
 Genung, John F.  ZEDEKIAH (ISBE p.3142)  CP  586
 Gersh, Harry  THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE JEWS p.81  J  586
 Getz, Gene A.  NEHEMIAH (BKC Vol.1 p.673)  CP  586

 AUTHORITY  SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE  CODE   DATE
 Giacumakis, G., Jr.  BROOCH (ZPEB Vol.1 p.656)  CP  587
 Gifford, E.H.  BARUCH (APOCRYPHA ed, WACE Vol.2 p.243)  CP  588
 Gigot, Francis E.  SPECIAL INTRO. TO THE STUDY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT Vol.1 p.43  R  586
 Gilbert, Martin  JEWISH HISTORY ATLAS p.6  H  586
 Glazebrook, M.G.  STUDIES IN THE BOOK OF ISAIAH p.xv  LP  586
 Gleig, G.R.  THE HISTORY OF THE BIBLE Vol.2 p.109  CP  586
 Goddard, Burton L.  MALACHI (WBC p.914)  CP  586
 Gold, V.R.  BETH-SHEMESH (IDB Vol.1 p.403)  LP  587
 Goldingay, J.E.  BOOKS OF KINGS (NBD p.661)  CP  587
 Golub, Jacob S.  IN THE DAYS OF THE FIRST TEMPLE p.155  J  586
 Goodman, H.G.  THE STORY OF PROPHECY p.185  J  586
 Goodspeed, Edgar J.  HOW TO READ THE BIBLE p.91  LP  586
 Gordon, A.R.  THE PROPHETS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT p.190  LP  586
 Gordon, R.P.  PAPYRI AND OSTRACA (NBD p.873)  CP  587
 Gotch, F.W.  JEREMIAH (PCBE Vol.2 p.920)  CP  586?
 Gottwald, Norman K.  HEBREW POETRY (IDB Vol.3 p.837)  LP  586
 Gowan, Donald E.  BRIDGE BETWEEN THE TESTAMENTS p.12  LP  587
 Graham, William C.  ZEPHANIAH (ABC p.813)  LP  586
 Gray, John  ARCHAEOLOGY & THE OLD TESTAMENT p.180  A  586
 Gray, G.B.  THE BOOK OF ISAIAH (HDB p.390)  LP  586
 Graybill, J.F.  JEREMIAH (WBC p.659)  CP  587
 Griffith, F.L.  HOPHRA (HDB p.362)  LP  586
 Grogan, Geoffrey W.  ISAIAH (EBC Vol.6 p.6)  CP  587
 Grubb, Edward  THE BIBLE: ITS NATURE AND INSPIRATION p.106  LP  586
 Grun, Bernard  THE TIMETABLES OF HISTORY p.10  H  581?
 Guiladi, Yael  ONE JERUSALEM p.73  J  587
 Guillaume, A.  1 & 2 KINGS (NC p.273)  LP  586
 Guinness, H. Grattan  LIGHT FOR THE LAST DAYS p.49  CP  587
 Gulston, Charles  JERUSALEM: THE TRAGEDY & THE TRIUMPH p.86  CPH  586
 Guthrie, Harvey H.  ISRAEL'S SACRED SONGS p.167  LP  587
 Haggai, John  HAGGAI (CLB p.907)  CP  586
 Hagner, D.A.  BOOK OF BARUCH (ZPEB Vol.1 p.484)  CP  586?
 Haldar, Alfred  RIBLAH (IDB vol.4 p.78)  H  586
 Hamilton, R.W.  LACHISH (IDB Vol.3 p.54)  LP  586
 Hammer, Raymond  THE BOOK OF DANIEL p.8  LP  586
 Hannah, John D.  ZEPHANIAH (BKC Vol.1 p.1525)  CP  586
 Hanson, Paul D.  APOCALYPTICISM (IDB Vol.5 p.32)  LP  587
 Harford, J. Battersby  STUDIES IN THE BOOK OF EZEKIEL p.2  LP  586
 Harrelson, Walter  INTERPRETING THE OLD TESTAMENT p.227  LP  586
 Harris, R. Laird  CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT (ZPEB Vol.1 p.717)  CP  586
 Harrison, R.K.  INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT p.832  CP  586
 Hartman, Harvey D.  2 KINGS (LBC p.745)  CP  586
 AUTHORITY  SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE  CODE   DATE
 Hartman, Louis F.  DANIEL (JBC p.447)  R  587
 Harvey-Jellie, W.  1 & 2 CHRONICLES (Cent) p.324  LP  587
 Hayes, John H.  AN INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT STUDY p.218  LP  586?
 Heaton, E.W.  THE OLD TESTAMENT PROPHETS p.83  LP  586
 Heinisch, Paul  THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT p.315  LP  587
 Helmbold, A.K.  OBADIAH (ZPBE Vol.4 p.479)  CP  586
 Hempel, Johannes  ETHICS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT (IDB Vol.2 p.157)  LP  587
 Henderson, Ebenezer  THE 12 MINOR PROPHETS p.186  CP  588
 Hengstenberg, E.W.  CHRISTOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT p.921  CP  588
 Henry, Matthew  COMMENTARY ON THE WHOLE BIBLE (Vol.2 p.1027)  CP  588
 Herbert, A.S.  LAMENTATIONS (PCII p.563)  LP  586
 Heschel, Abraham J.  THE PROPHETS p.135  J  587
 Higginson, R.E.  ZECHARIAH (NBC p.790)  CP  586
 Hoaglind, Richard B.  WORLD HISTORY THE EASY WAY p.26  H  586
 Hobbs, Helen  THE PROPHETS SPEAK p.68  LP  587
 Hoffner, H.A., Jr.  AMMON, AMMONITES (ZPEB Vol.1 p.139)  CP  587?
 Holladay, William L.  JEREMIAH THE PROPHET (IDB Vol.5 p.471)  LP  587
 Hooke, S.H.  THE RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS OF ISRAEL (PCII p.147)  LP  586
 Horton, R.F.  MINOR PROPHETS (Vol.1 p.185)  LP  586
 How, J.C.H.  EZRA & NEHEMIAH (NC p.293)  LP  586
 Hubbard, D.A.  BOOK OF LAMENTATIONS (NBD p.671)  CP  587
 Huey, F.B., Jr.  JEREMIAH (BSC p.121)  CP  587
 Hunt, Joseph Ignatius  EXCURSUS: ISRAEL AND HER NEIGHBORS (JBC p.210)  R  587/6
 Hyatt, J.P.  AMOS (PCII p.618)  LP  586
 Irwin, W.A.  THE PROBLEM OF EZEKIEL p.68  LP  586
 Jacob, Edmond  THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT p.187  LP  587
 Jamieson, H.M.  BETHEL (ZPEB Vol.1 p.532)  CP  587
 Jantz, Elmer A.  EZEKIEL (LBC p.1595)  CP  586
 Jeffery, Arthur  DANIEL (IB Vol.6 p.352)  LP  587
 Jenni, E.  DAY OF THE LORD (IDB Vol.1 p.785)  LP  587
 Jennings, A.C.  HAGGAI (Ell, Vol.5 p.550)  CP  586
 Jensen, Irving L.  JEREMIAH: PROPHET OF JUDGMENT p.117  CP  586
 Jensen, Joseph  GOD'S WORLD TO ISRAEL p.298  R  587
 Johnson, Otto, ed.  1997 INFORMATION PLEASE ALMANAC p.97  Ref  586
 Johnson, Aubrey R.  PROCLAMATION & PRESENCE (ed. Durham/Porter) p.257  LP  587
 Jones, Alexander, ed.  THE JERUSALEM BIBLE p.1069  R  587
 Jones, Douglas R.  ISAIAH -- II & III (PCII p.519)  LP  586
 Jordan, W.G.  THE OLD TESTAMENT AND SCIENCE (ABC p.125)  LP  586
 Kaiser, Walter C.,Jr.  TOWARD AN OLD TESTAMENT THEOLOGY p.236  CP  586
 Kaiser, Otto  ISAIAH 13-39 (OTL p.410)  LP  587
 Kapelrud, A.  PHOENICIA (IDB Vol.1 p.803)  LP  587
 Kaufmann, Yehezkel  THE RELIGION OF ISRAEL p.410  J  587
 AUTHORITY  SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE  CODE   DATE
 Kautzsch, E.  LITERATURE OF THE OLD TESTAMENT p.192  LP  586
 Kay, D.M.  CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT (HDB p.112)  LP  586
 Keil, C.F.  KEIL-DELITZSCH COMMENTARY (KINGS p.190)  CP  588
 Keller, Werner  THE BIBLE AS HISTORY p.295  H  587
 Kelley, Page H.  JEREMIAH 1-25 (Word) p.5  CP  587
 Kellogg, Samuel  THE BOOK OF LEVITICUS (Exp) p.529  CP  586
 Kelso, J.L.  BETHEL (IDB Vol.1 p.392)  LP  587
 Kenedy,& Sons (pub,)  THE HOLY BIBLE DOUAY/CONFRATERNITY p.353 (NT)  R  586
 Kennedy, A.R.S.  ARK (HDB p.49)  LP  587
 Kennett, R.H.  HAGGAI (PCI p.572)  LP  586
 Kent, C.F.  BIBLICAL GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY p.194  H  586
 Kenyon, Kathleen  ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE HOLY LAND p.289  A  587
 Kepler, Thomas S.  DREAMS OF THE FUTURE p.23  CP  586
 Kidner, Derek  ISAIAH (NBC p.588)  CP  587
 Kirkpatrick, A.F.  THE DOCTRINE OF THE PROPHETS p.534  CP  586
 Kitchen, Kenneth A.  ARK OF THE COVENANT (NBD, p.82)  AH  587
 Kitto, John  DAILY BIBLE ILLUSTRATIONS Vol.2 p.304  CP  587
 Klausner, Joseph  THE MESSIANIC IDEA IN ISRAEL p.70  J  587
 Kleinert, Paul  HABAKKUK (Lange vol.7 p.5)  CP  588
 Kligerman, Aaron J.  MESSIANIC PROPHECY IN THE OLD TESTAMENT p.148  CP  586
 Knight, George A.F.  DEUTERO ISAIAH p.28  LP  587
 Kraeling, Emil G.  BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGIST READER (ed. Wright/Freedman) p.142  LP  586
 Kraft, Charles F.  AMOS (IB.1V p.476)  LP  586
 Kroll, F.Gerald  LAMENTATIONS (LBC p.1526)  CP  586
 Kuist, H.T.  JEREMIAH (Lay) p.11)  LP  587
 La Sor, W. Sanford  1 AND 2 KINGS (NBC p.368)  CP  587/6
 Laetsch, Theodore  JEREMIAH p.11  CP  586
 Lambert, D. etc  THE BOOK OF KEY FACTS p.11  Ref  586
 Landes, G.M.  AMMON (IDB Vol.1 p.112)  J  586?
 Lapp, Nancy L.  POTTERY (IDB Vol.5 p.676)  LP  587
 Lattey, C.  JEREMIAS (CCHS p.575)  R  587
 Launay, A.J.  DICTIONARY OF CONTEMPORARIES p.7  H  597
 Lawson, J. Gilchrist  THE MARKED REFERENCE BIBLE (Chronology p.8)  CP  587
 Leahy, M.  LAMENTATIONS (CCHS p.592)  R  586
 Lehrman, S.N.  HABAKKUK (Sonc) p.211  J  586
 Leonard, Paul E.  JOEL (IBC p.889)  CP  587
 Leslie, Elmer A.  THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT (ABC p.111)  LP  586
 Leupold, H.C.  EXPOSITION OF ISAIAH Vol.2 p.23  CP  587
 Levine, Baruch A.  PRIESTS (IDB vol.5 p.687)  J  587
 Levy, David  JOEL: THE DAY OF THE LORD p.ix  CP  587
 Lewis, J.P.  EKRON, EKRONITE (ZPEB Vol.2 p.260)  CP  587
 Lilley, J.  JEHOIACHIN (ZPEB Vol.3 p.419)  CP  587?
 AUTHORITY  SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE  CODE   DATE
 Lindblom, J.  PROPHECY IN ANCIENT ISRAEL p.389  LP  586
 Lindsey, F. Duane  HAGGAI (BKC Vol.1 p.1537)  CP  586
 Livingston, G. Herbert  OBADIAH (WBC p.839)  CP  587/6
 Livingston, D.H.  ELIAKIM (ZPEB Vol.2 p.281)  CP  587?
 Lofthouse, W.F.  JEREMIAH AND THE NEW COVENANT p.vii  LP  586
 Longman, Tremper III  INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT p.304  CP  587
 Lowe, W.H.  ZECHARIAH (Ell, Vol.5 565)  CP  588
 Luck, G. Coleman  DANIEL p.15  CP  588
 Ludwigson, R.  A SURVEY OF BIBLE PROPHECY p.179  CP  586
 Lumby, J.R.  2 KINGS (Cam) p.lii  CP  587
 Lupton, J.H.  1 ESDRAS (APOCRYPHA ed. Wace Vol.1 p.23)CP  CP  588
 M'Caw, Leslie S.  THE PSALMS (NBC p.501)  CP  586
 M'Neile, A.H.  THE HISTORY OF ISRAEL (PCI p.68)  LP  586
 Macalister, R.A.S.  PALESTINE (HDB p.674)  LP  586
 Mackenzie, Donald A.  MYTHS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA p.489  CP  587?
 Maclean, H.B.  ZEDEKIAH (IDB Vol.4 p.948)  LP  587
 MacRae, A.A.  PROPHETS AND PROPHECY (ZPEB Vol.4 p.900)  CP  586
 Magnusson, M., ed.  CHAMBERS BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY (5th ed., 1990)p.1070  Ref  586
 Mangan, Celine  1,2 CHRONICLES, EZRA, NEHEMIAH p.145 (OTM)  R  587
 Mare, W.H.  GAZA (ZPEB Vol.2 p.664)  CP  587?
 Marshall, I.Howard  1 KINGS-2CHRONICLES (SU) p.47)  CP  587
 Martin, John A.  EZRA (BKC Vol.1 p.651)  CP  586
 Martin, Charles G.  1 & 2 KINGS (IBC p.395)  CP  587
 Masterman, E.W.G.  JERUSALEM (ISBE p.1616)  CP  586
 Mauchline, J.  I & II KINGS (PCII p.338)  LP  586
 Mauro, Philip  THE WONDERS OF BIBLE CHRONOLOGY p.73  CP  507
 May, Herbert G.  EZEKIEL (IB Vol.6 p.44)  LP  586
 May, H.G.  HISTORY OF ISRAEL TO THE EXILE (PCII p.125)  LP  586
 McCasland, S.V.  THE RELIGION OF THE BIBLE p.113  LP  587
 McConville, J.G.  EZRA, NEHEMIAH & ESTHER (DSB) p.1  LP  587
 McCurdy, James F.  HAGGAI (Lange vol.7 p.8)  CP  588
 McDowell, Josh  DANIEL IN THE CRITICS' DEN p.48  CP  586
 McFadyen, J.E.  HAGGAI (ABC p.815)  LP  587
 McGee, J.Vernon  THRU THE BIBLE Vol.3 p.436  CP  586
 McKenzie, J.L.  THE TWO-EDGED SWORD p.22  LR  587
 McNamara, Martin  TARGUM AND TESTAMENT p.20  R  587
 McNeill, W.H.  THE RISE OF THE WEST p.179  H  586
 McNichol, John  THINKING THROUGH THE BIBLE Vol.2 p.70  CP  586
 Meek, Theophile J,  LAMENTATIONS (IB Vol.6 p.5)  LP  586
 Mendenhall, G.E.  ELECTION (IDB Vol.2 p.80)  LP  587
 Mercer, Samuel A.B.  EXTRA-BIBLICAL SOURCES FOR HEBREW & JEWISH HISTORY p.197  H  586
 Merrill, Eugene H.  2 CHRONICLES (BKC Vol.1 p.648)  CP  586

 AUTHORITY  SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE  CODE   DATE
 Meyer, F.B.  JEREMIAH: PRIEST AND PROPHET p.8  CP  589
 Meyrick, Prebendary  OBADIAH (Cook p.565)  CP  588
 Micklem, Nathaniel  PROPHECY AND ESCHATOLOGY p.66  LP  586
 Mihelic, Joseph  MOLTEN SEA (IDB Vol.3 p.541)  LP  587/6
 Millard, A.R.  TEMPLE (NBD p.1169)  CP  587
 Miller, Adam W.  INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT p.141  LP  587
 Miller, J. Maxwell  THE OLD TESTAMENT AND THE HISTORIAN p.87  LP  587/6
 Mitchell, T.C.  CHRONOLOGY (NBD, p.193)  H  587(6)
 Moller, Wilhelm  EZEKIEL (ISBE p.1072)  CP  586
 Montefiore, C.G.  THE ORIGIN & GROWTH OF RELIGION ... ANCIENT HEBREWS p.207  J  586
 Montgomery, James A.  DANIEL (ICC, p.114)  LP  586
 Moore, George F.  THE LITERATURE OF THE OLD TESTAMENT p.100  LP  586
 Moorehead, W.G.  OUTLINE STUDIES IN THE BOOKS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT p.262  CP  588/9
 Morgenstern, Julian  SOCIAL & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ISRAEL (IDB2/768)  J  586
 Moriarty, Frederick L.  ISAIAH 1-39 (JBC p.280)  R  587
 Morris, Herbert  TESTIMONY OF THE AGES p.554  CP  588?
 Morrish, G. (pub.)  THE DATES AND CHRONOLOGY OF SCRIPTURE p.42  CP  588
 Morton, W.H.  NETOPAH (IDB Vol.3 p.541)  LP  587
 Morton, H.V.  THROUGH THE LANDS OF THE BIBLE p.72  H  586
 Moscati, Sabatino  THE FACE OF THE ANCIENT ORIENT p.248  H  586
 Motyer, J.A.  PROPHECY, PROPHETS (NBD p.977)  CP  587
 Mowinckel, Sigmund  HE THAT COMETH p.10  LP  587
 Muilenburg, James  THE HISTORY OF THE RELIGION OF ISRAEL (IB Vol.1 p.329)  LP  586
 Murphy, Roland E.  PSALMS (JBC p.589)  R  587
 Murphy, Richard T.A.  ZEPHANIAH, NAHUM, HABAKKUK (JBC p.293)  R  587
 Myers, Jacob M.  2 CHRONICLES (AB p. 221)  LP  587
 Napier, B. Davie  PROPHET, PROPHETISM (IDB Vol.3 p.914)  LP  587
 National Geog. Soc.  EVERYDAY LIFE IN BIBLE TIMES p.275  LPH  587
 Neil, W.  HAGGAI (IDB Vol.2 p.509)  LP  586
 Neusner, Jacob  CHRISTIAN FAITH AND THE BIBLE OF JUDAISM p.6  J  586
 Newberry, Thomas  THE ENGLISHMAN'S BIBLE p.306  CP  588
 Newell, William  OLD TESTAMENT STUDIES p.292  CP  588
 Nichol, F.D., ed.  THE 7TH-DAY ADVENTIST BIBLE COMMENTARY Vol.1 p.98  CP  586
 Nicol, T.  DISPERSION (ISBE p.856)  CP  586
 Nix, William E.  A GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BIBLE p.240  CP  586
 North, Christopher R.  ISAIAH (IDB Vol.2 p.742)  LP  586
 North, Robert  THE CHRONICLER: 1-2 CHRONICLES, EZRA, NEHEMIAH (JBC p.404)  R  587
 Noth, Martin  LEVITICUS (OTL) p.130  LP  587
 Oesterley, W.O.E.  INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOKS OF THE APOCRYPHA p.257  LP  586
 Oppenheim, A.L.  NEBUCHADNEZZAR (IDB vol.3 p.530)  H  586
 Orelli, Conrad von  ISAIAH (ISBE p.1525)  CP  586
 Orr, James  TEMPLE (ISBE p.2934)  CP  586
 AUTHORITY  SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE  CODE   DATE
 Osborne, W.  LAMENTATIONS (IBC p.800)  CP  587
 Oswalt, John N.  ISAIAH 1-39 (NIC p.406)  CP  587
 Ottley, R.L.  A SHORT HISTORY OF THE HEBREWS p.309  LP  586
 Overstreet, Floyd W.  JEREMIAH (CLB p.709)  CP  587
 Ozanne, C.G.  THE FIRST 7000 YEARS p.86  CP  586
 Parrott, Andre  BABYLON AND THE OLD TESTAMENT p.123  AH  586
 Pascoe, L.C.,ed.  ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DATES & EVENTS p.22  H  586
 Patai, Raphael  THE HEBREW GODDESS p.11  J  586
 Paterson, John  THE GOODLY FELLOWSHIP OF THE PROPHETS p.175  LP  586
 Patterson, Richard D.  1,2 KINGS (EBC Vol.4 p.3)  CP  586
 Payne, J. Barton  ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIBLICAL PROPHECY p.350  CP  586
 Payne, D.F.  JERUSALEM (NBD, p.569)  H  587
 Peake, A.S.  JEREMIAH Vol.1 p.74  LP  586
 Pearson, Anton T.  EZEKIEL (WBC p.703)  CP  586
 Pentecost, J. Dwight  DANIEL (BKC Vol.1 p.1326)  CP  586
 Perowne, T.T.  HAGGAI AND ZECHARIAH p.27  LP  586
 Petersen, David L  HAGGAI AND ZECHARIAH 1-8 p.7  LP  587
 Pfeiffer, Robert H.  HISTORY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT p.5  LP  586
 Pfeiffer, Charles F.  ZEPHANIAH (NBD, p.1278)  AH  587
 Philip J. King  AMOS (JBC p.252)  R  587
 Pickering, B.M.  JEREMIAH (NC p.507)  LP  586
 Pierson, Arthur T.  KNOWING THE SCRIPTURES p.39  CP  586
 Pilcher, C.V.  THREE HEBREW PROPHETS p.85  P  586
 Pinnock, W.H.  AN ANALYSIS OF SCRIPTURE HISTORY p.205  CP  588
 Plumptre, E.H.  JEREMIAH (Ell, Vol.5 p.133)  CP  588
 Poelman, Roger  TIMES OF GRACE p.15  R  587
 Porteous, Norman W.  DANIEL (OTL, p.135)  LP  587
 Power, E.  THE HISTORY OF ISRAEL TO 130 B.C. (CCHS p.93)  R  587
 Price, Warwick James  THE ONE BOOK p.37  LP  586
 Price, Ross  LAMENTATIONS (WBC p.695)  CP  586
 Price, Ira M.  THE TRANSMISSION OF THE OLD TESTAMENT (ABC p.101)  LP  586
 Provan, Iain  LAMENTATIONS (NCB, p.10)  LP  587
 Pusey, E.B.  LECTURES ON DANIEL THE PROPHET p.201  CP  588
 Rabinowitz, I.  GOVERNMENT (IDB, vol.2 p.457)  J  587
 Rad, Gerhard von  OLD TESTAMENT THEOLOGY Vol.1 p.337  LP  587
 Radin, Max  THE JEWS AMONG THE GREEKS & ROMANS p.56  JH  586
 Ragozin, Zenaide  STORY OF BABYLON, MEDIA & PERSIA p.181  H  586
 Rast, Walter E.  TRADITION HISTORY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT p.64  LP  587
 Rattey, B.K.  A SHORT HISTORY OF THE HEBREWS p.106  LP  586
 Raven, John H.  OLD TESTAMENT INTRODUCTION p.174  CP  586
 Rawlinson, George  EZRA & NEHEMIAH: THEIR LIVES & TIMES p.9  CPH  586
 Redpath, H.A.  THE BOOK OF THE PROPHET EZEKIEL (WC, p.19)  LP  588
 AUTHORITY  SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE  CODE   DATE
 Relm, Merlin D.  ZADOK THE PRIEST (IDB Vol.5 p.977)  LP  587
 Rendtorff, Rolf  THE OLD TESTAMENT: AN INTRODUCTION p.53  LP  586
 Richardson, Alan  PREFACE TO BIBLE STUDY p.47  LP  585
 Rivkin, Elias  THE SHAPING OF JEWISH HISTORY p.19  JH  586
 Roberts, J.M.  THE PELICAN HISTORY OF THE WORLD p.127  H  587
 Robinson, H.W.  INSPIRATION AND REVELATION IN THE OLD TESTAMENT p.123  LP  586
 Robinson, T.H.  AN INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT p.183  LP  586
 Robinson, George L.  HAGGAI (ISBE p.1317)  CP  586
 Robinson, James M.  THE OLD TESTAMENT & CHRISTIAN FAITH (ed. B.W.Anderson)p.128  LP  587
 Robinson, D.W.B.  OBADIAH (NBC p.742)  CP  587
 Rogers, Robert W.  EZRA AND NEHEMIAH (ABC p.454)  LP  586
 Roper, R.K.  LAMENTATIONS (NC p.514)  LP  586
 Rose, H.J.  DANIEL (Cook p.238)  CP  588
 Rosenberg, Stuart E  THE BIBLE IS FOR YOU p.16  J  586
 Roth, Wolfgang  ISAIAH (Knox) p.118  LP  587
 Rowley, H.H.  THE GROWTH OF THE OLD TESTAMENT p.101  LP  586
 Russell, Bertrand  A HISTORY OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY p.312  H  586
 Russell, D.S.  THE METHOD & MESSAGE OF JEWISH APOCALYPTIC p.197  LP  587
 Rylaarsdam, J.C.  HEBREW WISDOM (PCII p.387)  LP  586
 Ryle, H.E.  THE CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT p.xx  LP  586
 Saggs, H.W.F.  THE GREATNESS THAT WAS BABYLON p.536  H  586
 Salibi, Kamil  THE BIBLE CAME FROM ARABIA p.15  H  586
 Sampey, John R.  THE BOOK OF OBADIAH (ISBE p.2174)  CP  587
 Sanders, J.A.  EXILE (IDB Vol.2 p.186)  LP  587
 Sandmel, Samuel  CONCEPTIONS OF ISRAEL (IDB, vol.5 p.462)  J  587
 Sauer, Erich  FROM ETERNITY TO ETERNITY p.50  CP  586
 Schofield, J.N.  JUDGES (PCII p.304)  LP  586
 Schroder, W.J.  EZEKIEL (Lange vol.7 p.6)  CP  586/7
 Schultz, A.C.  EXILE (ZPEB Vol.2 p.424)  CP  586
 Schultz, Samuel J.  THE GOSPEL OF MOSES p.74  CP  586
 Scofield, C.I., ed.  THE SCOFIELD REFERENCE BIBLE p.455  CP  588
 Scott, R.B.Y.  THE WAY OF WISDOM p.35  LP  587
 Scott, Thomas  HOLY BIBLE (Commentary Vol.2 p.673)  CP  588
 Scroggie, W.Graham  RULING LINES OF PROGRESSIVE REVELATION p.93  CP  586
 Sellers, O.R.  PALACE (IDB Vol.3 p.620)  LP  587
 Sellin, E.  INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT p.153  LP  586
 Shanks, Hershel  THE CITY OF DAVID p.122  JA  586
 Shewell-Cooper, W.E.  COTTON (ZPEB Vol.1 p.990)  CP  587?
 Short, Stephen S.  EZRA (IBC p.490)  CP  587
 Simpson, D.C.  I & II KINGS (ABC p.412)  LP  586
 Simpson, C.A.  THE GROWTH OF THE HEXATEUCH (IB Vol.1 p.197)  LP  586
 Skinner, John  I & II KINGS p.432  LP  586/7
 AUTHORITY  SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE  CODE   DATE
Slotki, I.W.  KINGS (Sonc, pp.315,319) J  586/7
 Slotki, Judah J.  DANIEL, EZRA, NEHEMIAH (Sonc, p.114)  J  587
 Smelik, Klaas A.D.  WRITINGS FROM ANCIENT ISRAEL p.191  LP  586
 Smith, David Anthony  PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT (2nd ed.)p.396  LP  587
 Smith, Uriah  DANIEL & THE REVELATION p.20 (Adventist, 70 years began 1st exile)  CP  588?
 Smith, George  THE HEBREW PEOPLE p.347  PA  586
 Smith, George Adam  A HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE HOLY LAND p.xxv  LP  587
 Smith, W.Robertson  THE PROPHETS OF ISRAEL p.416  LP  586
 Smyth, K.  3 AND 4 KINGS (CCHS p.328)  R  587
 Snaith, Norman H.  1 AND 2 KINGS (IB Vol.3 p.11)  LP  586
 Sonne, Isaiah  SYNAGOGUE (IDB, vol.4 p.479)  J  587
 Spencer, F. Ernest  OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY p.115  CP  587?
 Stade, B.  BIBLISCHE THEOLOGIE DES ALTEN TESTAMENTS p.292  LP  586
 Stafford, Gary C.  SECOND KINGS (CLB p.354)  CP  586
 Stalker, D.M.G.  EZEKIEL (TB, p.29)  LP  586
 Stearns, Wallace N.  THE BOOK OF KINGS (ISBE p.1808)  CP  586
 Stephens-Hodge, L.  LAMENTATIONS (NBC p.659)  CP  586
 Stevens, W.S.  THE BOOK OF DANIEL p.15  CP  587
 Stigers, Harold  2 KINGS (WBC p.364)  CP  586
 Stinespring, W.F.  ASHDOD (IDB Vol.1 p.249)  LP  587
 Stott, John R.W.  UNDERSTANDING THE BIBLE p.96  CP  587/6
 Streane, A.W.  EZEKIEL (Cam p.34)  LP  586
 Stuart, Douglas  HOSEA-JONAH (Word) p.403  CP  586
 Stuhlmueller, Carroll  POST-EXILIC PERIOD: SPIRIT, APOCALYPTIC (JBC p.337)  R  587
 Sutcliffe, E.F.  THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT (CCHS p.162)  R  587
 Szikszai, Stephen  I & II SAMUEL (IDB Vol.4 p.205)  LP  586
 Tadmor, Hayim  2 KINGS (AB p.341)  J  586
 Talmon, S.  EZRA AND NEHEMIAH (IDB, vol.5 p.317)  J  586
 Taylor Jr, Charles L.  ZEPHANIAH (IB Vol.6 p.1008)  LP  586
 Taylor, John B.  EZEKIEL p.29  CP  587
 Taylor, Kenneth N.  THE LIVING BIBLE p.296  CP  587
 Thackeray, H.St.John  BARUCH (NC Vo.2 p.106)  LP  587
 Thiele, Edwin R.  THE MYSTERIOUS NUMBERS OF THE HEBREW KINGS p.166  CP  586
 Thomas, D.Winton  DOCUMENTS FROM OLD TESTAMENT TIMES p.xviii  H  587
 Thomas, John  EXPOSITION OF DANIEL p.36 (Christadelphian)  LP  592
 Thompson, F.C.  THOMPSON CHAIN-REFERENCE BIBLE p.840  CP  588?
 Thompson, J.A.  AMMON, AMMONITES (NBD, p.30)  PA  586
 Thompson, J. Alexander  ARABIANS (ZPEB Vol.1 p.242)  CP  587?
 Thomson, J.G.S.S.  JEREMIAH (NBD p.558)  CP  587
 Thomson, W.R.  THE BURDEN OF THE LORD p.193  LP  586
 Tkacik, Arnold J.  EZEKIEL (JBC p.345)  R  587
 Toombs, L.E.  DISH FOR INCENSE (IDB Vol.2 p.698)  LP  586
 AUTHORITY  SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE  CODE   DATE
Toynbee, Arnold  A STUDY OF HISTORY (Rev & Abr) p.65 H  586
 Trever, J.C.  WORMWOOD (IDB Vol.4 p.879)  LP  586
 Unger, Merrill F.  ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE OLD TESTAMENT p.285  CP  587
 Urquhart, John  NEW BIBLE GUIDE (Vol.7 p.111)  CP  586
 Van Beek, G.W.  TERRITORY OF SAMARIA (IDB Vol.4 p.189)  LP  587
 Van Gorder, Paul R.  THE OLD TESTAMENT PRESENTS REFLECTIONS OF CHRIST p.70  CP  586
 VanGemeren, Willem  PSALMS (EBC Vol.5 p.484)  CP  586
 Vaux, Roland de  ANCIENT ISRAEL p.299  AR  587
 Vawter, Bruce  THE CONSCIENCE OF ISRAEL p.238  R  586
 Velikovsky, I.  AGES IN CHAOS p.4  JH  586/7
 Verhoef, Pieter A.  THE BOOKS OF HAGGAI AND MALACHI (NIC p.95)  CP  587
 Vermes, Geza  THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS IN ENGLISH p.61  LP  587
 Voegelin, Eric  ORDER AND HISTORY: ISRAEL AND REVELATION p.488  LP  586
 Vos, Howard F.  ARCHAEOLOGY IN BIBLE LANDS p.187  CP  587/6
 Vriezen, T.C.  AN OUTLINE OF OLD TESTAMENT THEOLOGY p.40  LP  586
 Walker, L.L.  ARAMAIC (ZPEB Vol.1 p.250)  CP  587?
 Waltke, B.K.  BOOK OF LAMENTATIONS (ZPEB Vol.3 p.862)  CP  586
 Walvoord, John F.  DANIEL p.203  CP  586
 Ward, J.M.  SAMGAR -- NEBO (IDB Vol.4 p.197)  LP  586
 Wardle, W.L.  EZEKIEL (ABC p.714)  LP  586
 Watson, Richard  A BIBLICAL & THEOLOGICAL DICTIONARY p.513  CP  588
 Watson, W.G.  JOEL (ABC p.768)  LP  586
 Weatherhead, Leslie  THE BUSY MAN'S OLD TESTAMENT p.11  LP  586
 Weber, C.P.  GERUTH-CHIMHAM (ZPEB Vol.2 p.704)  CP  586
 Weir, Thomas Hunter  KINGDOM OF JUDAH (ISBE p.1762)  CP  586
 Weiser, Artur  THE OLD TESTAMENT p.209  LP  587
 Welch, Adam C.  JEREMIAH (ABC p.679)  LP  586
 Wellard, James  BABYLON p.211  A,H  587
 Wellhausen, Julius  PROLEGOMENA TO THE HISTORY OF ISRAEL p.491  LP  586
 Wells, H.G.  OUTLINE OF HISTORY p.265  H  586
 Werblowsky, R.J., ed.  ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE JEWISH RELIGION p.216  J  586
 Westermann, Claus  ISAIAH 40-66 (OTL p.3)  LP  587
 Wevers, J.W.  ARMY (IDB Vol.1 p.229)  LP  586
 Whitcomb, John C.  A HISTORY OF ISRAEL: FROM CONQUEST TO EXILE p.487  CP  586
 White, W., Jr.  COMMONWEALTH (ZPEB Vol.1 p.928)  CP  586?
 Whitehouse, Owen C.  THE RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS OF ISRAEL (PCI p.98)  LP  587
 Widyapranawa, S.H.  ISAIAH 1-39 (ITC p.262)  CP  587/6
 Wigoder, Geoffrey, ed.  ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE JEWISH RELIGION p.216  J  586
 Willard, Samuel  CHRONOLOGY (PCBE Vol.1 p.422)  CP  586
 Willett, Herbert L.  DANIEL (ABC p.746)  LP  586
 Williams, Albert N.  THE HOLY CITY p.32  H  586
 Wilson, Robert Dick  STUDIES IN THE BOOK OF DANIEL Vol.1 p.65  CP  586?
 AUTHORITY   SOURCE / BOOK / TITLE  CODE   DATE
 Wilson, Clifford A.  ROCKS, RELICS & BIBLICAL RELIABILITY p.94  CPA  587?
 Wilson, Ron E.  HABAKKUK (CLB p.898)  CP  587?
 Wilson, Robert R.  PROPHECY AND SOCIETY IN ANCIENT ISRAEL p.233  LP  587?
 Winnett, F.V.  BRONZE (IDB Vol.1 p.467)  LP  586
 Wiseman, D.J.  ILLUSTRATIONS FROM BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY p.70  CPA  587
 Wolff, Hans Walter  THE VITALITY OF OLD TESTAMENT TRADITIONS p.86  LP  587
 Wood, Geoffrey E.  JOEL, OBADIAH (JBC p.439)  R  587/6
 Wood, Leon  A SURVEY OF ISRAEL'S HISTORY p.376  CP  586
 Wright, Charles H.H.  DANIEL AND HIS PROPHECIES p.195  CP  588
 Wright, J.S.  ZECHARIAH (NBD p.1275)  CP  587
 Wright, William  NEBUCHADNEZZAR (PCBE Vol.2 p.1222)  CP  588
 Wright, G.Ernest  THE FAITH OF ISRAEL (IB, vol.1 p.372)  PH  586
 Wurthwein, Ernst  THE TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT p.6  LP  ca588
 Yamauchi, Edwin  BARUCH (CCHS p.596)  R  586
 Yates, Kyle M.  PSALMS (WBC p.524)  CP  586
 Young, Robert  YOUNG'S LITERAL TRANSLATION p.178 (NT)  CP  588
 Young, Donald, ed.  1994 WORLD ALMANAC & BOOK OF FACTS p.500  R  586
 Young, Edward J.  THE PROPHECY OF DANIEL p.297  CP  587
 Zimmerli, Walther T.  EZEKIEL (IDB Vol.5 p.316)  LP  587
 Zockler, Otto  DANIEL (Lange vol.7 p.189)  CP  587

 607 AND 1914
WHY SO IMPORTANT TO THE WATCHTOWER?
THEY ARE THE 'GOOD NEWS' AND 'GOD'S DATES'


Let the honest-hearted person compare the kind of preaching of the gospel of the Kingdom done by the religious systems of Christendom during all the centuries with that done by Jehovah's Witnesses since the end of World War I in 1918. They are not one and the same kind. That of Jehovah's Witnesses is really "gospel," or "good news," as of God's heavenly kingdom that was established by the enthronement of his Son Jesus Christ at the end of the Gentile Times in 1914. [Italics ours] [The Watchtower May 1,1981 p.17]

We see no reason for changing the figures nor could we change them if we would. They are, we believe, God's dates, not ours. But bear in mind that the end of 1914 is not the date for the beginning, but for the end of the time of trouble. [The Watchtower July 15, 1894 p.1677]



CALL YOUR WITNESSES!


THE WATCHTOWER

AGAINST ALL THE EXPERTS IN THE WORLD

We have here endeavoured, we believe impartially, to bring forth the best evidence from all available sources bearing on the actual date of Jerusalem's fall to Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. We have failed to find even a single reference from a reputable source -- that is, a source that has credibility outside of The Watchtower. We therefore challenge the leaders of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society to come forward with a single credible witness who will publically defend their date for the fall of Jerusalem, 607 B.C.

Until that time we stand on the word of Jesus Christ himself: 'at the mouth of two or three witnesses every matter may be established' (Matt.18:16, NWT; see also John 8:17; Deut.19:15)

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