Who REALLY is the 'Faithful and Discreet Slave'?

Teachers Tried, True & Honoured By The Whole Body of Christ

Second Edition By David Aspinall

A Testimony about the Need for Teachers:

BEFORE the first serious cracks began to show in my faith in the Watchtower, God had already set me up for a soft fall. I was reading books I shouldn't have. Since all Jehovah's Witnesses officially believe that the only good food comes from the organization's table, I should never have started collecting non-JW books. But my years as a pioneer and trouble shooter (someone publishers take along on difficult calls) had taught me that the weapons the Watchtower supplies were inadequate. Books like Is the Bible the Word of God? and Aid to Bible Understanding, while impressive to theuneducated JW and Joe Public, didn't make much of a dent in the armour of half-educated unbelievers. Rather than dismiss such 'difficult' calls as goats,
an attitude definitely encouraged by elders when official Watchtower tools failed, I made the theocratically fatal error of giving the non-Witness the benefit of doubt. I went looking for more powerful weapons. My search for better answers to defend the Watchtower would eventually lead out of 'the organization'. But that was not at all apparent at the time. For as I combed secondhand bookstores in downtown Toronto for books on unbelief's favourite targets -- the Genesis creation story, the flood, 'contradictions' in the Bible etc. -- I quickly found out there was a wealth of good material out there, and much of it had been published decades before 'God's organization' got around to dealing with the same issues. I guess I shouldn't have been too surprised, for one of the first tasks I set myself when the complete Aid book came out in 1971 (in the first flush of post-baptism zeal) was to index the references to other sources used by the Watchtower in compiling it. I, like all the Witnesses I knew, was sure the Aid to Bible Understanding was the untimate in Bible tools. Now I was using its references to build a library of books in the field of apologetics, the science of defending the Christian faith. By 1979, when I was appointed an elder, my library already contained 100s of works in this area. John Burns, my fellow elder in University (Toronto) congregation and now a Watchtower lawyer, remarked one day how great an advantage these books would be to me as a pioneer and a Ministry School Overseer. John was right -- in a way neither of us could have foreseen!

One thing that became apparent fairly early in my book collecting: most of the best books I found defending the Bible were written by clergymen! This became especially important later on, when I had to look more closely at the original books of C.T Russell and Joseph Rutherford. Since the Watchtower no longer published any of these books by its founders, they made quite the trophy on my bookshelves, never failing to impress fellow Witnesses who visited. Of course, neither they nor I would likely ever read them anyway -- why read 'old light' when we had so much fine literature with up-to-date 'spiritual food'? Nevertheless, though my faith in the organization was as yet
unshaken, it did bother me a bit that I couldn't get much help from these older Watchtower books in defending the Watchtower beliefs, or the Bible. What little time I did spend skimming them, reading a page or two here and there, confirmed that the newer literature was far more useful for preaching the 'good news'. The older books, especially Russell's, seemed to be full of interpretations of Revelation and other prophecies we didn't interpret the same way anymore. This bothered me a little, but I had much more important things to do than dwell on the organization's past!

While these potential faith-undermining explosives sat on my shelves unread for years, God was using a slower but steady process to loosen my ties to the Watchtower. Many of these old books I was reading -- some even older than Russell's -- were proving very useful to my ministry, especially for Bible studies who asked tough questions. Fellow Witnesses would sometimes asked me where I got some of the facts and refutations I used with calls we shared. But by now (1984) I'd decided most Witnesses were better off not knowing. But even those who knew what was in my library never warned me that this extra reading might be 'dangerous', though undoubtedly it would have occurred to them. After all, 'Mother' still provided all that anyone could ever need. But fellow JW's still came to me, not the other loyal elders, for the tough calls. This contradiction bothered me too.

A cushion to land on

Then, in summer of 1984, the first major fissures appeared in the Watchtower's foundation. For the first time someone forced me to take those old Russell books off the shelves and look more closely at them. Many of those who read this will know the rest of the story. Anyone who finally reads those books knows before long why they're no longer printed, or printable. Now my bookcollecting compromises had shattered my faith in the organization's 'integrity-keeping', even the honesty of its leaders. But my books had also given me an advantage that most people who find out the truth about the Watchtower don't enjoy -- I knew there was somewhere to go, someone who could be trusted. Through books I had already met Gladstone, Queen Victoria's Prime Minister, who (in his 80s) had written The Impregnable Rock of Holy Scripture, standing on the Rock of divine revelation at the very time Russell was pointing his followers to a pile of stone in Egypt. I had also met George Rawlinson, who as Professor of Ancient History at Oxford during the same era, dedicated most of his life to defending the dependability of Scripture against withering assaults from rationalism and Darwinism. While Rawlinson was underlining God's dependability as revealed in history (The Historical Evidences of the Truth of the Scripture Records and many other works), Charles Russell was undermining the same by speculation passed of as 'food at the proper time' (The Divine Plan of the Ages, The Time is at Hand). If Russell's intent was to demonstrate the trustworthiness of God, instead of setting future dates for God to act he should have been pointing to the fulfilment of God's prophecies in the past, as did John Urquhart in The Wonders of Prophecy (about 1905).

By 1985 it was to such books, not the Watchtower's, that I went for witnessing help, and, I now had to admit, for spiritual food as well. Compared to these books, despite their age, even current Watchtower publications seemed very stale indeed. So when I finally realized the hypocrisy of my situation, that I was publically advocating the benefits of 'Jehovah's pure table', but eating elsewhere myself, I finally jumped off 'Jehovah's chariotlike organization'. But my books at least gave me a cushion to land on, whereas for my wife Vivian the fall was devastating. I had learned to trust at least dead Christians, but Vivian trusted nobody, not even me. But gradually, as her paranoia faded and her wounds healed, Vivian too began to read some of the books that had helped me, and we both started feasting on the vast range of food available to Christians -- of which Jehovah's Witnesses are completely unaware. We have both come to see that what the Watchtower continues to call the 'table of demons' is far better set, far more nutritious, and has infinitely less admixture of poison than the Watchtower's meagre table. And even most of the good food the Society publishes is
derived from Christendom's pantry. Our decade in the book business has only increased the wonder Vivian and I have for the incredible riches that are available to Christians. We have come to realize that the weakness and compromise in the church are NOT the result of the lack of availability of spiritual food, but rather the neglect of what God has provided. If Christian testimony and zeal are feeble, it is because they, like JW's, are feeding at the wrong table. God's table has always been well stocked, but those invited were -- and are -- too busy elsewhere (Matt.22:1- 14).

Returning a favour
Most of the great teachers that the Lord has given the church are, sadly, either
neglected or almost completely forgotten. Vivian and I would like return the favour those teachers have done for us by passing their rich heritage on to others. The following list makes no attempt to be exhaustive. We apologize in advance if Christian teachers that have benefitted others are not included. Nor are the works listed under each author complete lists. Within the confines of our allotted format, we have tried to include as many of the universally acknowledged, cherished and treasurable teachers (at least, they used to be!) as we could. We have not read all of the recommended works, but we have at the very least seen them referred to by other teachers we have come to trust. The list draws on the richest works of all Christian traditions -- Anglican,
Reformed, Lutheran, Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist, Brethren -- and even reveals that, despite the objections of some, God has used teachers in the Holiness, Pentecostal and Roman Catholic communions. Indeed here we have proof that 'the wind blows where it will, and you hear its voice, but know not whence it comes or where it goes. Thus is everyone that is born of the Spirit' (John 3:8).The list could have been many times longer, but it couldn't have been much shorter.

We hope those who read this will, if they haven't already, sample the rich and tasty menu that the Lord has set for the church's growth, strength, stability and protection. Even the apostles knew their spiritual need. Even after 3 years with Christ Himself they begged 'Lord, give us more faith'. The feast has long been ready, and we are invited (Matt.22:1-14).
- David Aspinall

P.S. I have purposely omitted from the following list authors and teachers who are still with us. Whether they too will be honoured among the 'faithful and wise' servants of the Master only time can test. Despite the claims of The Watchtower and other 'new light' religions, when the Lord puts bread on the table it never becomes stale. In fact, I and millions of others can testify that the old 'dishes' still have a special savour that is all their own.ALEXANDER, Joseph Addison (1809-1860) Princeton Bible scholar
, wrote standard commentaries on Psalms, Isaiah, Acts, Mark and Matthew (left incomplete)

ALFORD, Henry (1810-1871) Biblical scholar, dean of Canterbury at death.
One of the NT revisers. 4-vol. edition of Greek New Testament brought best of
German scholarship to the English reader. Many other works, including Genesis (&
part Exodus) commentary

AMBROSE (340-397) Bishop of Milan, kept peace between Arians and Catholics,
all the while adhering to Trinitarian orthodoxy. Influenced and baptized Augustine

ANDERSON, Sir Robert (1841-1918) lay apologist (while head of criminal
investigation, Scotland Yard) wrote The Coming Prince; The Silence of God; The
Gospel and His Ministries; The Bible and Modern Criticism

ANSELM (1033-1109) Italian-born, moved to England and became one of the
most influential theologians of the middle ages. His Cur Deus Homo (Why God
Man) became standard defense of incarnation and atonement. His philosophical

arguments for the existence of God, "the ontological argument", became normative
ATHANASIUS (296-372) Bishop of Alexandria, became champion of
Trinitarianism against Arius from the time of the Council of Nicaea (325); banished
4 times by the Arian emperors for his unflinching espousal of the Deity of Christ.
Exiled 20 years

AUGUSTINE, Aurelius (354-430) Bishop of Hippo (North Africa), wrote work
that defined Medieval orthodox understanding of the church, The City of God. THE
most influential theologian in history of Christianity, revered by both Catholics & Protestants. Primary influence at the Council of Carthage (397), which fixed the Bible canon. Also wrote famous Confessions, and many books still printed, including De Trinitate

BARNES, Albert (1798-1870) American Presbyterian commentator, educated
at Princeton. His Bible Notes are still in demand. Also wrote much against slavery
BARON, David (1855-1926) Hebrew Christian. Wrote much on OT prophecy:
The Servant of Jehovah; Visions and Prophecies of Zechariah; Types, Psalms &
Prophets; Israel in the Plan of God

BARTH, Karl (1886-1968) Swiss-born, the most influential theologian of the
20th century. Wrote massive Church Dogmatics and many smaller works, including
a commentary on Romans and The Resurrection of the Dead (on 1 Corinthians)

BASIL the Great (329-379) Born in and bishop of Caesarea, first of the 3
Cappodocians (with 2 Gregorys). Founded first Christian hospital (especially for
lepers), gave wealth to poor, and wrote vigorous defenses of Deity of Christ and
Holy Spirit. Severity of labours and ascetic life sent him to early grave, greatly beloved

BAXTER, Richard (1615-1691) Puritan in Church of England, finally forced out.
The Reformed Pastor; The Saints' Everlasting Rest; A Call to the Unconverted
among his 100+ works

BENGEL, Johann Albrecht (1687-1752) German Lutheran NT scholar, father
of modern critical approach to text and exegesis, though strongly conservative. His
Gnomen of the New Testament still a resource for teachers and scholars

BERNARD of Clairvaux (1091-1153) The most-read mystic of monastic middle
ages. The most influential figure in French church of his day. Meditations still

BERNARD, Thomas Dehany (1815-1904) Oxford-trained Church of England
priest. Wrote The Progress of Doctrine in the New Testament, The Central
Teaching of Jesus Christ

BLAIKIE, William G. (1820-1899) Clergyman in Scotland's Free Church.
Socially conscious, wrote Bible History, bio of Livingstone, commentaries on
Samuel, Joshua

BONAR, Andrew A. (1810-1892) Brother of Horatius, Minister of Scotland's
Free Church. Wrote famous biography of McCheyne (with whom he visited
Palestine). Also books on Leviticus, Psalms

BOUNDS, Edward M. (1835-1913) Methodist, chaplain in Civil War. Prayed
each morning 4-7, and wrote many books on what he learned of prayer. Believed
in entire sanctification.

BRIDGES, Charles (1794-1869) Church of England evangelical. Famous
commentaries on Psalms 119, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and The Christian Ministry, a
McCheyne favorite

BROADUS, John A. (1827-1895) Virginian Baptist. Wrote valued books on
sermon preparation and history of preaching, and a famous commentary on

BROOKES, James H. (1830-1897) Presbyterian preacher, Princeton educated.
Wrote much on prophecy (premillenial); e.g. Maranatha; Israel and the Church; Did
Jesus Rise?; The Mystery of Suffering

BROWN, David (1803-1897) Scottish Free Church theologian, born and taught
in Aberdeen. Many works, including collaborating with Jamieson, Fausset on commentary on whole Bible. Wrote key works on postmillenial prophetic

BROWN, John (1784-1858) Scot Presbyterian, called "modern Puritan" by
Spurgeon, who said "all his expositions are of the utmost value". Wrote on
Galatians, Peter, Isaiah 53, Hebrews etc.

BRUCE, Alexander B. (1831-1899) Free Church divine, one of the greatest NT
scholars of the Victorian era. Wrote The Training of the Twelve; The Humiliation of
Christ; commentaries on gospels, Hebrews

BRUCE, Frederick Fyvie (1910-1990) Worshipped in little Brethren church.
Rylands chair of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis at University of Manchester (1959-
78). Perhaps the outstanding conservative NT scholar of postwar generation

BULLINGER, E.W. (1837-1913) Highly individual Church of England scholar.
Wrote much on prophecy and evidences of inspiration, including a commentary on
Revelation, Numbers in Scripture; The Gospel in the Stars

BUNYAN, John (1628-1688) English Puritan, wrote devotional classics Pilgrim's
Progress; Grace Abounding; The Holy War

BUTLER, Joseph (1692-1752) Church of England theologian, became Bishop of
Bristol and later Durham, turned down Archbishopric of Canterbury. Wrote definitive work combatting deism of his day, The Analogy of Religion, which became a basic text in apologetics for generations. Also famous for his formidable (printed) sermons

CALVIN, John (1509-1564) Geneva reformer. His Institutes of the Christian
Religion and commentaries (embracing most of the Bible) are still invaluable to

CANDLISH, Robert S. (1806-1873) A founder of Scotland's Free Church, and
leader after Chalmers. Wrote The Fatherhood of God; commentaries on Genesis (3
vol.) and 1 John

CHAFER, Lewis Sperry (1871-1952) Presbyterian theologian and first president
of Dallas Seminary. Many works, including Systematic Theology (8 vol.); Major
Bible Themes; Salvation

CHAMBERS, Oswald (1874-1917) Scottish Baptist. Many famous devotional
works, such as My Utmost for His Highest

CHARLES, Robert Henry (1855-1931) Irish Church of England scholar, canon
of Westminster Abbey (1913-31). The foremost expert on Jewish eschatology and
intertestamental literature of the day. Edited massive Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament (2 vol.) and wrote great work on Revelation

CLARKE, Adam (1762-1832) Great English Methodist expositor and linguist,
mostly self-taught. Greatest work huge 8-volume commentary on entire Bible

CHARNOCK, Stephen (1628-1680) Puritan, expelled from Church of England
posts, but wrote some of most enduring theological works of his age, including
Discourse upon the Existence, Attributes of God

CHRYSOSTOM, John (347-407) Born in Antioch of Syria, where his preaching
eloquence gained him the title 'golden-mouthed'. Later he became Bishop of
Constantinople and his preaching against sin brought down wrath of Queen
Eudoxia. Exiled, but his influence continues to this day through his great series of

CLEMENT of Alexandria (ca.150-ca.215) One of the greatest theologians of the
early church, saught to find good in pagan philosophies, and, some would say,
imported too much Greek thinking into Christianity. Nevertheless, can't be ignored

DALE, R.W. (1829-1895) Congregational preacher and reformer. Succeeded
John Angell James at Carr's Lane, Birmingham. Wrote The Atonement; The Jewish
Temple and the Church; Lectures on Ephesians

DARBY, John Nelson (1800-1882) English founder of the Plymouth Brethren,
his views on prophecy have become known as 'dispensationalism'. Many works,
including Bible translations in English, German and French

DAVIDSON, Andrew Bruce (1831-1902) Free Church OT scholar, taught
many other famous scholars, incl. W.Robertson Smith and G.A. Smith. Many
commentaries, notable works on Job, Ezekiel, Hebrews, Old Testament Theology,
Hebrew Grammar

DEISSMANN, Gustav Adolf (1866-1937) German Lutheran NT scholar,
demonstrated through vast knowledge of papyri that NT language simply common
Greek (koine) of its time. Wrote Light from the Ancient East, works on philology,

DELITZSCH, Franz (1813-1890) Lutheran, born in Leipzig of Hebrew ancestry,
one of the foremost OT scholars of all time. With colleague C.F.Keil, wrote most
distinguished conservative OT commentary of 19th century. Many other labours,
incl. commentaries on Genesis, Hebrews and Hebrew NT, System of Biblical

DENNEY, James (1856-1917) Free Church theologian, NT scholar.
Commentaries on Romans, 2 Corinthians, Thessalonians. Also The Death of Christ;
The Atonement and the Modern Mind; The Doctrine of Reconciliation

DODDRIDGE, Philip (1702-1751) Congregational divine, his Rise and
Progress of Religion in the Soul inspired millions, including Wilberforce, who owed
his conversion to its influence

DODS, Marcus (1834-1909) One of Scotland's great Bible commentators of the
Victorian era. Helped to popularize the critical treatment of the Bible. Many works,
including The Expositor's Bible treatments of Genesis and the Gospel of John

DRIVER, Samuel Rolles (1846-1914) English Hebrew scholar, successor of
Pusey at Christ Church, Oxford. His OT introduction and many commentaries
brought critical German scholarship to a generation of churchmen. With Brown and
Briggs edited still standard Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament

DRUMMOND, Henry (1851-1897) Scottish Prof of Biology, great influence on
youth of Victorian era through work with Moody/Sankey, books Natural Law in the
Spiritual World, The Ideal Life, The Greatest Thing in the World (on 1 Cor.13)

EADIE, John (1810-1876) Scottish NT scholar, his Bible Cyclopedia and works
on Paul's epistles and Acts became standards of conservative exegesis

EDERSHEIM, Alfred (1825-1889) Jewish Christian scholar, born in Vienna.
Presbyterian, then Church of England. Author of most famous life of Christ. Also
Bible History; The Temple; Sketches of Jewish Social Life

EDWARDS, Jonathan (1703-1758) Colonial New England's greatest intellect,
America's greatest theologian. Wrote Religions Affections; Freedom of the Will;
Original Sin and works on revival

ELLICOTT, Charles (1819-1905) Cambridge educated NT scholar, one of the
most renowned of the Revision Committee (1881 RV). Many commentaries, other
works, including editing series named after him. Bishop of Gloucester 42 years

ERASMUS, Desiderius (1466-1536) Dutch humanist, probably the greatest
scholar of his age. His Greek NT was the basis of much of the Reformation
scholarship, though Erasmus didn't disassociate himself from the Catholic church

ERDMAN, Charles R. (1866-1960) Presbyterian premillenial teacher, educated
at Princeton. Many commentaries for lay people, contributed to The Fundamentals

EUSEBIUS of Caesarea (Pamphili) (ca.260-ca.340) 'Father of Church
history', his Ecclesiastical History (to 325) is source of much of what we know of
early church. As Bishop of Caesarea, his sympathies were semi-Arian, but signed
Nicene Creed. Also wrote 2 great works of apologetics, Preparation for the Gospel
and Demonstration of the Gospel, as well as a world history, Chronicon, and a life
of Constantine

FAIRBAIRN, Patrick (1805-1874) Scottish Free Church theologian. Famous
works on Typology of Scripture; Jonah, Ezekiel, interpretation of prophecy

FARRAR, Frederic William (1831-1903) Dean of Canterbury, chaplain of
Commons, honourary Chaplain to Queen Victoria. One of the greatest scholars
and church administrators of his age. Wrote many commentaries on both
testaments, a great Life and Work of St.Paul, History of Interpretation and a famous
Life of Christ; adopted many higher critical positions, and challenged doctrine of
eternal punishment

FAUSSET, A.R. (1821-1910) Irish Church of England scholar, became canon of
York in 1885. Collaborated with Jamieson and Brown on famous commentary, and
himself wrote a Bible encyclopedia, commentary on Judges, many more works

FINDLAY, George Gillanders (1849-1919) Welsh/English Methodist New
Testament scholar. Wrote works on Epistles of John (Fellowship in the Life Eternal,
Galatians, Ephesians (for the Expositor's Bible) and worked on the Pulpit

FINNEY, Charles G. (1792-1875) Congregational preacher. Systematic
Theology; Lectures on Revivals, many smaller works on Christian living

FLAVEL, John (1630-1691) English Presbyterian. Wrote The Fountain of Life
Opened Up; Method of Grace; Treatise on the Soul of Man

FORSYTH, Peter Taylor (1848-1921) English Congregational clergyman, wrote
The Person and Place of Christ, The Work of Christ, The Principle of Authority

FRANCIS de Sales (1567-1622) Catholic mystic, wrote devotional classics
Introduction to the Devout Life and A Treatise on the Love of God

GAEBELEIN, Arno C. (1861-1945) Methodist Episcopal minister, missionary to
Jewish people. Wrote many books on prophecy

GEIKIE, J. Cunningham (1824-1906) Presbyterian, then Church of England.
Wrote Life and Words of Christ; Hours with the Bible; The Holy Land and the Bible

GIRDLESTONE, Robert B. (1836-1923) Church of England clergyman, Old
Testament scholar. Author of Synonyms of the Old Testament; Grammar of
Prophecy; Old Testament Theology

GLOVER, T.R. (1869-1943) English Baptist, one of the greatest classicists of our
century. Wrote many works contrasting Christianity with pagan wordview and
demonstrating the historicity of the NT: The Jesus of History, Conflict of Religions in
the Early Roman Empire, The Influence of Christ in the Ancient World, Paul of

GODET, Frederic L. (1812-1900) Swiss reformed scholar. Famous
commentaries on Luke, John, Romans, 1 Corinthians. Also NT, OT Studies;
Introduction to Paul's Epistles

GOODWIN, Thomas (1600-1680) One of the greatest Puritan divines &
preachers, advisor of Cromwell, present at Westminster Assembly. Deprived of
Presidency of Magdalen College, Oxford, at Restoration, devoted last years to
scripture exposition

GORE, Charles (1853-1932) Ch. of England (High Church) Bishop of
Worcester, Birmingham and Oxford. Wrote many works with a moderately liberal
stance: Belief in God, Belief in Christ, The Holy Spirit and the Church and several
NT expositions

GRAY, James M. (1851-1935) Episcopalian teacher, prez. of Moody Institute.
How to Master the English Bible; Synthetic Bible Studies; Christian Worker's

GREGORY of Nazianzus (330-390) Greatest orator of the '3 Cappadocians'.
Preceded John Chrysostom as bishop of Constantinople and a teacher of Jerome

GREGORY of Nyssa Brother of Basil, friend of Gregory Nazianzen, after
Athanasius perhaps the greatest theologian of 4th cent. Removed as bishop of Nyssa
by Arian emperor, later had great influence for orthodoxy at Council of
Constantinople (381). Like other Cappodocian fathers, ascetic, but unlike them,

GREGORY the Great (540-604) The greatest Pope of the Catholic church, not a
great scholar but a great administrator. Reformed the corrupt church of his day by
affirming tradition in many areas, including celibacy and liturgy

GUYON, Madame (1648-1717) French Catholic mystic, persecuted and
imprisoned by church because of visions and writings. Friend of Fenelon, her
writings still sought

HALDANE, Robert (1764-1842) Scottish educator, guided 300 into ministry,
including Merle d'Aubigne, Monod, Malan and Gaussen. His lectures on Romans
enormously influential in quelling the tide of rationalism in Europe

HARNACK, Karl Gustav Adolph von (1851-1930) German Lutheran, the
outstanding expert on early church of WW1 period. Wrote radical History of
Dogma, but came to believe in the substantial historicity of Luke and Acts

HASTINGS, James (1852-1922) Tireless Scottish clergyman, editor of
Expository Times (1890-1922), and also, unbelievably, the Dictionary of the
Bible,(5 vol.), and the Encyclopedia of Religion & Ethics (12 vol.), Dictionary of
Christ and the Gospels, Dictionary of the Apostolic Church, Great Texts of the Bible
and many more

HAVERGAL, Frances Ridley (1836-1879) English hymn and devotional writer
of wide influence, her most famous prose work being Kept for the Master's Use

HENGSTENBERG, E.W. (1802-1869) German Lutheran Bible scholar. Great
work Christology of the Old Testament. Also commentaries on Psalms, Ecclesiastes,

HENRY, Matthew (1662-1714) Welsh Presbyterian, virtually home educated.
Of his great commentary Spurgeon said, "every minister ought to read it entirely
and carefully through once at least"

HILARY of Poitiers (ca.300-367) Greatest Latin theologian of his age, 'the
Athanasius of the West'. Banished from his bishopric for opposition to Arianism, he
composed his most famous work, De Trinitate (On the Trinity). As poet and hymn
writer, second only to Ambrose in ancient church

HODGE, A.A. (1823-1886) Born (and died) at Princeton, NJ. Son of Charles,
but a theologian first, not commentator. Wrote Outline of Theology; The

HODGE, Charles (1797-1878) Philadelphian Presbyterian. Trained 3000
ministers over 50 years at Princeton. Wrote Systematic Theology, commentaries on
Romans, Corinthians, Ephesians

HOOKER, Richard (ca.1553-1600) Church of England apologist, whose Laws
of Ecclesiastical Polity, while defending episcopal government, took a moderating
view of dissident Protestants. Arminian in sympathy, he naturally opposed Calvinist

HORT, Fenton J.A. (1828-1892) Cambridge NT scholar. With B.F. Westcott,
responsible for Greek text behind Revised NT. Several works (some not complete)
on NT published after death (e.g. 1 Peter, Revelation 2-3)

IGNATIUS of Antioch (ca.40-ca.115) Bishop of Antioch, Syria, and direct link
with apostles. His epistles, written on road to martyrdom in Rome, refute the claim
that the early church did not teach Deity of Christ, bodily resurrection, episcopal
government. Needless to say, he's ignored by unorthodox (e.g. Watchtower Trinity

INGE, William R. (called Dean, and later Sir) (1860-1954) One of the most
influential clergymen of the first half of this century. Almost prophetic in his
pessimism. Wrote (from liberal C.of E. position) Faith & Knowledge, Christian
Mysticism, Lay Thoughts of a Dean

IRENAEUS (ca.130-ca.202) Bishop of Lyons, trained by Polycarp. His greatest
work Against Heresies (ca.185) was first work to utilize (more or less) complete New
Testament. Apparently died a martyr after having converted nearly all of Lyons &
launched missions

IRONSIDE, Henry A. (Harry) (1876-1951) Born in Toronto, educated in
California. Began Salvation Army, became Brethren. Over 60 books, expositions
of most of Bible

JEROME (ca.340-420) The greatest linguistic scholar of the ancient church,
responsible for the Latin Vulgate, the official Bible of the RC church for over a
millenium. Lived a rigorously ascetic life and also wrote commentaries from
monastery in Bethlehem

JOHN OF THE CROSS (1542-1591) Spanish Carmelite mystic, his Dark Night
of the Soul and other works represent the Catholic mystic tradition at its best

JOWETT, John Henry (1864-1923) Congregational, succeeded R.W. Dale at
Carr's Lane, Birmingham (called the finest church in the world by A.T. Pierson).
Many devotional books of sermons, and a famous work on preaching

JUSTIN 'MARTYR' (ca.100-166) Palestinian Platonist, converted after elderly
saint witnessed to him of the superior antiquity of the Hebrew prophets. His
Apologies meet the philosopher on own ground; in Dialogues he becomes a Jew to
the Jew

KEIL, J.K.F. (1807-1888) Lutheran from Saxony. One of the greatest OT
scholars of the 19th century, collaborated with Franz Delitzsch on greatest set of
conservative OT commentaries yet to appear; also wrote many NT commentaries

KELLOGG, Samuel H. (1839-1899) Princeton Presbyterian. Worked on Hindi
OT. Author of notable works on prophecy and OT, great commentary on Leviticus

KELLY, William (1821-1906) Dublin born, one of the Brethren's greatest
scholars, edited J.N. Darby's works. A prolific writer, wrote many commentaries

KENYON, Sir Frederick G. (1863-1952) One of England's outstanding
philologists and archaeologists; wrote many books defending the trustworthiness of
the Bible: Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts; Handbook of the Textual
Criticism of the New Testament; The Text of the Greek Bible; The Bible and
Modern Scholarship

KIERKEGAARD, Soren ( 1833-1855) Danish theologian, just as influential as
'existentialist' philosopher. His attacks on established church, stress on personal
faith, have had vast influence on 20th century thought. Works include Either/Or,
Concluding Scientific Postscript and Fear and Trembling

KITTO, John (1804-1854) Born in Plymouth, became, despite deafness and
limited education, great Bible teacher. Famous for his Cyclopaedia, Daily Bible

KRUMMACHER, F.W. (1796-1868) German reformed preacher. Works on OT
characters include Elijah the Tishbite; The Prophet Elisha; David the King of Israel;
as well as The Suffering Saviour

KUYPER, Abraham (1837-1920) Dutch Reformed theologian, became Prime
Minister of Holland. Wrote Calvinism; The Work of the Holy Spirit; Principles of
Sacred Theology

LANGE, Johann Peter (1802-1884) German reformed exegete and theologian,
his Theological and Homiletical Commentary is a standard. Many other works,
including a great Life of Jesus

LAW, William (1686-1761) English divine, his Serious Call to a Devout and
Holy Life influenced generations to more careful obedience, including Doddridge
and Wesley

LEIGHTON, Robert (1611-1684) Scottish theologian, educated Univ. of
Edinburgh, attempted to harmonize his early Presbyterianism with later
Anglicanism. Laboured hard for unity, sympathetic to Jansenists & Catholics.
Wrote great commentary on 1 Peter

LENSKI, Richard C.H. (1864-1936) German-born American Lutheran scholar,
wrote massive (10,000 pages) commentary on entire NT

LIDDON, Henry Parry (1829-1900) Oxford High Church divine, wrote definitive
Divinity of Our Lord & Saviour Jesus Christ, as well as a notable commentary on
Romans, and a massive biography of Pusey. Turned down bishopric, but was
canon of St.Paul's Cathedral, where he is buried. Sympathetic to reunion with

LIGHTFOOT, Joseph B. (1828-1889) Perhaps England's greatest NT and
patristics scholar of Victorian era. Became Bishop of Durham, but still completed
definitive works on Galatians, Philippians, Colossians and apostolic fathers.

LLOYD-JONES, David Martyn (-1980) Welsh Presbyterian preacher,
succeeded Campbell Morgan at Westminster Chapel. His 40 year incumbency
resulted in multivolume expositions on Romans and Ephesians, many works

LUTHER, Martin (1483-1546) German reformer. Influence extends beyond
writings, but commentaries, especially on Galatians, more influential than any but

MACARTNEY, Clarence E.N. (1879-1957) American Presbyterian pastor and
preacher, author of 47 books, mostly sermons. A key figure in the conservative/modernist controversy of the 20s and 30s

MACHEN, John Gresham (1881-1937) Princeton theologian, and founder,
after Presbyterian modernist controversy, of Westminster Seminary. Wrote
Christianity and Liberalism; What is Faith?; The Virgin Birth of Christ

MACKINTOSH, Charles Henry (1820-1896) Irish Brethren devotional writer,
his Notes on the Pentateuch (6 vol.) have nourished generations of Christians

MACKINTOSH, Hugh Ross (1870-1936) Church of Scotland theologian, many
influential works: Doctrine of the Person of Jesus Christ; The Christian
Apprehension of God; Types of Modern Theology; The Christian Experience of

MacLAREN, Alexander (1826-1910) Glasgow born Baptist, preached in
Manchester over 50 years. Sermons, especially Expositions of Holy Scripture,
excelled in influence only by Spurgeon's. Also did famous works on Psalms,
Colossians for Expositor's Bible

MATHESON, George (1842-1906) Blind Church of Scotland preacher. Studies
of the Portrait of Christ; Representative Men (and Women) of the Bible had wide

McCLINTOCK, John (1814-1870) American Methodist, first prez of Drew
Seminary. With J.Strong compiled 12 vol. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, &
Ecclesiastical Literature, state of the art until Hastings

MELANCTHON, Phillip (1497-1560) After Luther, the greatest figure of the
German Reformation. Composer of the Augsburg Confession & Apology, his spirit
was more irenic (some would say compromising) than many reformers. His
greatest work Loci Communes, Rerum Theologicarum. Buried beside Luther at

MEYER, Frederick B. (1847-1929) London Baptist pastor, his devotional books
have had enormous circulation. They include many portraits of Bible characters,
including Peter, Paul, David, Moses, Abraham.

MEYER, Heinrich A.W. (1800-1873) Lutheran NT scholar, helped edit Luther's
NT. Fame rests chiefly on the massive commentary named after him, which he
edited and to which he contributed the volumes on the gospels, Acts and some

MILLIGAN, George (1860-1934) Scot NT scholar, one of the greatest authorities
on Greek papyri. Many works, including (with Moulton) Vocabulary of the Greek

MILLIGAN, William (1821-1893) Edinburgh theologian and NT scholar. On
Revised Version committee. Many works, including famous commentary on

MOFFATT, James (1870-1944) Scot NT scholar, taught at Oxford and Union
Theological Seminary, N.Y. Produced one of the most famous Bible translations of
this century, and edited a complete NT commentary. Many other writings, including
Hebrews (in International Critical Commentary) and a much-used NT introduction

MOODY, Dwight L. (1837-1899) Not an ordained minister, but the most
effective American evangelist of the 19th century. Wrote many devotional books,
including Prevailing Prayer

MORGAN, G. Campbell (1863-1945) Congregational preacher, books have
had unprecedented circulation. Expositions of gospels, Isaiah, Genesis, Hosea,
Malachi, Corinthians, Acts and more

MOULE, Handley C.G. (1841-1920) Anglican scholar, Bishop of Durham
(1901). Chaplain to Queen Victoria (1898-1901). At Cambridge produced many
learned and devout books especially on Paul's epistles

MURRAY, Andrew (1828-1917) South African Reformed Minister. Wrote many
devotional classics on deeper life, including Abide in Christ; The Holiest of All (on
Hebrews); With Christ in the School of Prayer

NEWMAN, John Henry (1801-1890) Born in London, Oxford-trained. With
Keble, Froude, Pusey, formed the Tractarian or Oxford movement to reform the
Church of England. In 1845 became Roman Catholic. Became priest, then cardinal.
His Apologia Pro Vita Sua is classic defense of Roman claims. Also wrote hymn
Lead Kindly Light and The Idea of the University. Collections of sermons also
eagerly sought.

NICOLL, Sir William Robertson (1851-1923) Scot editor and author. Edited
British Weekly and Expositor, as well as The Expositor's Dictionary of Texts, The
Expositor's Greek Testament and The English Bookman

OLSHAUSEN, Hermann (1796-1839) German Lutheran scholar, undertook
commentary on NT, left off at Thessalonians at his death from tuberculosis

ORIGEN (ORIGENES ADAMANTIUS) (c.185-c.254) Greatest scholar of
ancient church, though some of his views later came to be viewed as heretical by
orthodoxy (e.g. semi-Arian view of Christ). Among his vast output were many
commentaries and the Hexapla, a Bible in six columns, called by Westcott "the
greatest textual enterprise of ancient times". An extreme ascetic, he died in the
Decian persecution

ORR, James (1844-1913) Scottish theologian, apologist. Wrote The Christian
View of God and the World; The Progress of Dogma; The Problem of the Old
Testament; The Resurrection of Jesus.

OWEN, John (1616-1683) Chaplain of Cromwell, perhaps the most eminent of
Puritan divines. Wrote On the Holy Spirit; Epistle to the Hebrews; Christologia; The
Glory of Christ, much more.

PALEY, William (1743-1805) Cambridge scholar and C. of E. rector, his great
apologetic works Evidences of Christianity and Natural Theology shaped the
evidential approach of generations of Christian apologists. Also wrote Horae
Paulinae, or the Truth of the Scripture History of St. Paul and Principles of Moral &
Political Philosophy

PARKER, Joseph (1830-1902) English Congregational preacher, in late
Victorian era nearly as famous as Spurgeon. His People's Bible is a classic of
exposition. Gave much of his income to England's poor and championed

PASCAL, Blaise (1623-1662) French mathematician, one of the greatest
scientific minds of all time; invented calculator and discovered Theory of Probability.
Conversion led to his involvement with Jansenists. His Provincial Letters, in addition
to being a masterpiece of French prose, is a masterful defense of grace against
Jesuit claims. Left planned apologetic work unfinished at death, the notes becoming
his famous Pensees.

PIERSON, Arthur T. (1837-1911) Presbyterian preacher (though immersed in
1896) replaced ill Spurgeon in Metropolitan pulpit (1891-93). Wrote Keys to the
Word; New Acts of the Apostles; The Bible and Spiritual Criticism

PINK, Arthur W. (1886-1952) English devotional writer. The Attributes of God;
The Sovereignty of God; Gleanings (in Genesis, ...in Exodus, ...in Joshua, ...in Paul,
...in the Godhead); Gospel of John.

PLUMMER, Alfred (1841-1926) Great Church of England NT scholar and
historian, though never was ordained beyond deacon. Many commentaries,
including classics on Matthew and Luke and both Corinthians (the last 3 for ICC)

PLUMPTRE, Edward Hayes (1821-1891) Church of England clergyman, one of
the greatest Scripture exegetes of his day. Many OT and NT commentaries. Served
on the Old Testament Revision Committee (1870-74)

PUSEY, Edward B. (1800-1882) Oxford scholar, perhaps the greatest Hebraist
of the C. of E. Joined the Tractarian movement, but though a lifelong friend of
Newman never became a Romanist. Became the recognized leader of the Anglo-
Catholic party in the C. of E. Wrote 8-volume commentary on Minor Prophets, a
classic defense of the historicity of Daniel and co-edited the Oxford Library of the
Fathers (50 volumes).

RAMSAY, Sir William M. (1851-1939) Scot archaeologist (for which he was
knighted), Oxford scholar. Came to believe in authority of NT by confirming
historical detail of book of Acts. Many books on Paul, early church

RAWLINSON, George (1812-1902) Camden professor of ancient history of
Oxford. Works confirmed Bible, including many commentaries, Seven Great
Monarchies; Historical Evidences of the Truth of the Scripture Records

ROBERTSON, Frederick William (1816-1853) Church of England preacher,
educated at Edinburgh and Oxford. A Celt whose fire in the pulpit and Socialist
sympathies led to great -- but short -- ministry in Brighton. Left only sermon notes

ROBERTSON, A.T. (1863-1934) Southern Baptist NT scholar, son-in-law of J.
Broadus, his successor at Southern Baptist Seminary, Louisville. Many books,
including monumental Grammar of the Greek New Testament

RYLE, John Charles (1816-1900) Cheshire Church of England minister,
became bishop of Liverpool. Expository Thoughts on the Gospels (7 vol); Knots
Untied; Holiness; Christian Leaders of the Last Century

SANDAY, William (1843-1920) Oxford C.of E. New Testament scholar,
produced Life of Christ in Recent Research, Christologies Ancient and Modern, 2
works on the Gospel of John, and (with Headlam) a great commentary on Romans.
Many more.

SAPHIR, Adolph (1831-1891) Jewish convert to Christ, became Presbyterian
minister. Wrote Christ and Israel; Divine Unity of Scripture; Christ and the
Scriptures; an exposition of Hebrews

SAUER, Erich Billy Graham said: "Dr. Sauer's books should be in the hands of
every Christian." Wrote Dawn of World Redemption; King of the Earth; Triumph of
the Crucified; In the Arena of Faith; From Eternity to Eternity

SAVONAROLA (1452-1498) During the renaissance, the greatest reformer of the
Roman Catholic church. His years of preaching against corruption from his home
base in Florence led to his being offered (as mollification) cardinalship, which he
refused. His prophetic protest led to his being hung and burned, but inspiration
fuelled Reformation

SCHAFF, Philip (1819-1893) One of America's most distinguished and prolific
scholars, born and educated in Germany. His great works 8-vol. History of the
Christian Church and 3-vol. Creeds of Christendom.Attempted to emphasize
Christian unity on essentials. Also edited Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia and U.S.
edition of Lange's commentary.

SCROGGIE, W. Graham (1877-1959) Scot scholar, preacher. Guide to the
Gospels; The Great Unveiling; Know Your Bible; Unfolding Drama of Redemption;
The Fascination of the Old Testament, The Love Life

SEISS, Joseph A. (1823-1904) Lutheran minister, editor of Prophetic Times.
Wrote commentary on The Apocalypse; The Last Times, controversial books on the
great pyramid, primeval astrology

SHEDD, William G.T. (1820-1894) American Presbyterian theologian, upheld
tradtional orthodoxy against modernism at Union Theological Seminary. Famous
works include commentary on Romans, History of Christian Doctrine, Doctrine of
Endless Punishment, and Dogmatic Theology (3 vol.)

SIMEON, Charles (1759-1836) Church of England clergyman, centre of
evangelical influence at Cambridge for 54 years. Instrumental in emphasis on
missions, and author of Horae Homiletica, a study of all scripture

SIMPSON, A.B. (1844-1919) Presbyterian minister, born in P.E.I., educated
here at Knox. Founder of Christian and Missionary Alliance. Author of more than
70 books, many on Holy Spirit, higher life

SMITH, George Adam (1856-1942) Scottish OT expert, wrote Historical
Geography of the Holy Land, Jerusalem,famous commentaries on Isaiah, Jeremiah
and minor prophets, a bio of Drummond

SMITH, Wilbur M. (1894-1976) American Presbyterian bibliophile and author.
38 years as editor of Peloubet's Sunday School notes, and several books on books,
excellent resources for students and pastors

SPURGEON, Charles Haddon (1834-1892) English Baptist preacher, a latter-
day Puritan. Many volumes of sermons (2000+ total) Treasury of David (7 vol. on
Psalms), Lectures to My Students; Commenting and Commentaries

STALKER, James (1848-1927) Scottish Free Church teacher. Lives of Christ;
Paul; Imago Christi; The Beauty of the Bible; Christian Psychology; The Seven
Deadly Sins

STREETER, Burnett H. (1874-1937) Oxford NT scholar, seminal work on The
Four Gospels, and philosophy/apologetics such as Reality and Foundations

STRONG, Augustus H. (1836-1921) Yale educated Baptist theologian, President
of Rochester Seminary for 40 years. His Systematic Theology still basic. Also
Philosophy and Religion; The Great Poets & Their Theology

STRONG, James (1822-1894) American Methodist lay scholar. In addition to
monumental Exhaustive Concordance, did the lion's share of work on 12-vol.
McClintock & Strong Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical

SWETE, Henry Barclay (1835-1917) Church of England New Testament and
patristics scholar. Responsible for The Old Testament in Greek according to the
Septuagint, 3 books on the Holy Spirit, commentaries on Mark, Revelation

TAYLOR, Jeremy (1613-1667) Church of England devotional writer, exiled
under the Puritan ascendancy, during which time he wrote his famous works Life of
Liberty, Liberty of Prophesying, Holy Living and Holy Dying

TAYLOR, William Mackergo (1829-1895) Scot preacher, latterly served at
Congregational Broadway Tabernacle in NY. Many excellent character studies,
including Joseph, Moses, Ruth, David, Daniel, Esther, Peter and Paul. Also The
Miracles of our Saviour

TEMPLE, William (1881-1944) Oxford educated, son of Archbishop of
Canterbury Frederick T. Became Bishop of Manchester, Archbiship of York,
chaplain to both king and Archbishop of Canterbury, which he himself then became
(1942). Many works, such as Nature, Man and God and Studies in St.John's
Gospel. Very active in social sphere, founding World Council of Churches

TERESA of Avila (1515-1582) Spanish mystic, founder of Discalced Carmelite
order. Wrote The Way of Perfection, The Interior Castleand an autobiography

TERTULLIAN (ca.160-ca.220) Carthage-born Latin father, one of the ablest
apologists of the early church. Ascetic in emphasis, later became Montanist, in
protest of abuses and corruption in Catholic Christianity

THAYER, Joseph Henry (1828-1901) Boston-born, Andover and Harvard
educated NT lexicographer. His great work A Greek-English Lexicon of the New
Testament. Contributed much to the American Standard Version (1901)

THOMAS a Kempis (1380-1471) German monk whose Imitation of Christ was
the most widely distributed Christian book of the middle ages. Copied Bible 4 times

THOMAS AQUINAS (ca.1227-1274) Greatest of all Roman Catholic
theologians, his Summa Theologia, influenced by Aristotle, is the dominant work of
medieval scholasticism, 'thomism' so-called

THOMAS, W.H. Griffith (1861-1924) Church of England scholar, taught at
Oxford, St. Paul's, Wycliffe (Toronto). A co-founder of Dallas Seminary. Among
many valuable works, commentaries on Genesis and Romans

TORREY, Reuben A. (1856-1928) Congregational evangelist. Pastor at Moody
Institute. Wrote 40 books, including How to Pray. On editorial committee of The

TREGELLES, Samuel Prideaux (1813-1875) English Bible scholar, with
Quaker, Brethren and Presbyterian connections. A pioneer in textual criticism,
expert in both Greek and Hebrew lexicography

TRENCH, Richard C. (1807-1886) Archbishop of Dublin, served at Oxford,
Cambridge, and Dean of Westminster. Famous for Notes on Parables and Miracles
of Our Lord. Also wrote on gospels, 7 churches of Revelation

TYNDALE, William (1494-1536) Pioneer translator of the English Bible. His
death at the instigation of England's established church was truly the seed of the
Bible's spreading influence in England

VAUGHAN, Charles John (1816-1897) Church of England clergyman, wrote
excellent Greek commentaries on Romans, Philippians, Hebrews and Revelation.

VINCENT, Marvin R. (1834-1922) American NT scholar, best known for 4-vol.
Word Studies in the New Testament. Also a commentary on Philippians and
Philemon, History of the Textual Criticism of the New Testament

VOS, Geerhardus (1862-1949) Dutch Presbyterian theologian. Later Princeton.
Biblical Theology; The Mosaic Origin of the Pentateuchal Codes; Pauline
Eschatology; The Self-Disclosure of Jesus

WARFIELD, Benjamin B. (1851-1921) Princeton NT scholar and theologian.
Wrote Inspiration; The Lord of Glory; Counterfeit Miracles; Perfectionism; The Plan
of Salvation

WESLEY, John (1703-1791) Founder of Methodism, though didn't wish to
separate from Church of England. A prolific writer (mostly tracts), his most famous
production being his Journal

WESTCOTT, Brooke Foss (1825-1901) Church of England NT scholar, the
Greek text he laboured on (with F.J.A. Hort) is the basis of many modern
translations, including the New World (Watchtower). His works, still indispensable,
include New Testament Canon; Introduction to the Study of the Gospels,
commentaries on John's gospel and epistles, Hebrews, Ephesians

WHITEFIELD, George (1714-1770) English preacher, C. of E. background.
Early associate of Wesleys, but later emphasis more Calvinistic. Sermons still valued

WHYTE, Alexander (1837-1921) Free Church preacher. Famous for Bible
Characters; Commentary on the Shorter Catechism; Lord Teach Us to Pray; The
Walk, Conversation, Character of Jesus Christ Our Lord


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